My Index of the document (a work in progress)

Russia's foreign policy concept 2023

Background and commentary

by Laurie Meadows
First published 01 April 2023. Last edited 5 January 2024

"Radical changes in international affairs have forced us to seriously revise our main documents on strategic planning, including the Foreign Policy Concept of the Russian Federation, which sets out the principles, tasks and priorities of our diplomacy.

The Foreign Ministry, working together with the Presidential Executive Office, the Security Council Staff, the Government and many ministries and departments, has completed a large-scale and meticulous job to update and adjust the concept to modern geopolitical realities."
Vladimir Putin 31 March 2023

"The key areas, some of which have been significantly adjusted (and some redefined), are reflected in the Foreign Policy Concept approved by the President in March. It clearly prioritises relations with the Global Majority, rather than with the countries that have publicly declared us an adversary. (US Secretary of Defence Lloyd Austin, a public official, even went as far as calling us an enemy).

If so, we are prepared for any turn of events. More than once in history, there have been attempts to conquer and subjugate us."
Sergey Lavrov 28  December 2023

Work on the Russian Foreign Policy Concept started in November 2021. This document outlines Russian Foreign policy, its tasks and priorities for the medium to long term. The foreign policy document is drafted by the Foreign Ministry following guidelines laid down Russian President. The President, as Head of State (and military Commander in Chief) is Russia's chief diplomat, conducting negotiations with foreign heads of state, with friendly nations and strategic partners amongst other duties. He may also meet with heads of state and other officials from unfriendly countries, if expedient. The President publicly outlines these guidelines on Russian foreign policy in the annual address to the Russian Federal Assembly (the Duma, the 'Parliament'). The President is also responsible for approving the National Security Strategy, which includes foreign policy provisions.

The President approved the new foreign policy concept on 31 March 2023, and the previous (2016) concept became invalid. However, as Sergey Lavrov, the Russian Foreign Minister, noted "The concept shows a high degree of continuity with the previous version of 2016 in terms of the fundamental principles underlying our foreign policy, primarily its independence and focus on creating favourable external conditions for Russia’s progressive development, ensuring its security and improving the well-being of our citizens."

In my opinion the Russian Foreign Policy Concept is an evolved continuation of the future direction for Russia laid out at the 2007 Munich Security Conference. It is worth quoting at some length:

"It is well known that international security comprises much more than issues relating to military and political stability.

It involves the stability of the global economy, overcoming poverty, economic security and developing a dialogue between civilisations

This universal, indivisible character of security is expressed as the basic principle that “security for one is security for all”...And, just like any war, the Cold War left us with live ammunition, figuratively speaking.

I am referring to ideological stereotypes, double standards and other typical aspects of Cold War bloc thinking.

The unipolar world that had been proposed after the Cold War did not take place either....However, what is a unipolar world? the end of the day it refers to one type of situation, namely one centre of authority, one centre of force, one centre of decision-making.

It is world in which there is one master, one sovereign. And at the end of the day this is pernicious not only for all those within this system, but also for the sovereign itself because it destroys itself from within ..

I consider that the unipolar model is not only unacceptable but also impossible in today’s world...Unilateral and frequently illegitimate actions have not resolved any problems. Moreover, they have caused new human tragedies and created new centres of tension.

We are seeing a greater and greater disdain for the basic principles of international law.

And independent legal norms are, as a matter of fact, coming increasingly closer to one state’s legal system. One state and, of course, first and foremost the United States, has overstepped its national borders in every way. This is visible in the economic, political, cultural and educational policies it imposes on other nations. Well, who likes this? Who is happy about this?

In international relations we increasingly see the desire to resolve a given question according to so-called issues of political expediency, based on the current political climate.

And of course this is extremely dangerous. It results in the fact that no one feels safe.I am convinced that we have reached that decisive moment when we must seriously think about the architecture of global security.

And we must proceed by searching for a reasonable balance between the interests of all participants in the international dialogue. Especially since the international landscape is so varied and changes so quickly – changes in light of the dynamic development in a whole number of countries and regions...The combined GDP measured in purchasing power parity of countries such as India and China is already greater than that of the United States. And a similar calculation with the GDP of the BRIC countries – Brazil, Russia, India and China – surpasses the cumulative GDP of the EU. And according to experts this gap will only increase in the future.

There is no reason to doubt that the economic potential of the new centres of global economic growth will inevitably be converted into political influence and will strengthen multipolarity...I am convinced that the only mechanism that can make decisions about using military force as a last resort is the Charter of the United Nations... I would like to recall that in the 1980s the USSR and the United States signed an agreement on destroying a whole range of small - and medium-range missiles but these documents do not have a universal character.

Today many other countries have these missiles, including the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, the Republic of Korea, India, Iran, Pakistan and Israel. Many countries are working on these systems and plan to incorporate them as part of their weapons arsenals. And only the United States and Russia bear the responsibility to not create such weapons systems.

It is obvious that in these conditions we must think about ensuring our own security.

At the same time, it is impossible to sanction the appearance of new, destabilising high-tech weapons.

Needless to say it refers to measures to prevent a new area of confrontation, especially in outer space....The Adapted Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe was signed in 1999. It took into account a new geopolitical reality, namely the elimination of the Warsaw bloc. Seven years have passed and only four states have ratified this document, including the Russian Federation.

NATO countries openly declared that they will not ratify this treaty, including the provisions on flank restrictions (on deploying a certain number of armed forces in the flank zones), until Russia removed its military bases from Georgia and Moldova. Our army is leaving Georgia, even according to an accelerated schedule. We resolved the problems we had with our Georgian colleagues, as everybody knows. There are still 1,500 servicemen in Moldova that are carrying out peacekeeping operations and protecting warehouses with ammunition left over from Soviet times...Simultaneously the so-called flexible frontline American bases with up to five thousand men in each.

It turns out that NATO has put its frontline forces on our borders, and we continue to strictly fulfil the treaty obligations and do not react to these actions at all.

I think it is obvious that NATO expansion does not have any relation with the modernisation of the Alliance itself or with ensuring security in Europe.

On the contrary, it represents a serious provocation that reduces the level of mutual trust. And we have the right to ask: against whom is this expansion intended? And what happened to the assurances our western partners made after the dissolution of the Warsaw Pact? Where are those declarations today? No one even remembers them. But I will allow myself to remind this audience what was said. I would like to quote the speech of NATO General Secretary Mr Woerner in Brussels on 17 May 1990. He said at the time that: “the fact that we are ready not to place a NATO army outside of German territory gives the Soviet Union a firm security guarantee”. Where are these guarantees?...

In the energy sector Russia intends to create uniform market principles and transparent conditions for all. It is obvious that energy prices must be determined by the market instead of being the subject of political speculation, economic pressure or blackmail...Economic security is the sector in which all must adhere to uniform principles....

 As you know, the process of Russia joining the WTO has reached its final stages. I would point out that during long, difficult talks we heard words about freedom of speech, free trade, and equal possibilities more than once but, for some reason, exclusively in reference to the Russian market.

And there is still one more important theme that directly affects global security. Today many talk about the struggle against poverty. What is actually happening in this sphere? On the one hand, financial resources are allocated for programmes to help the world’s poorest countries – and at times substantial financial resources. But to be honest — and many here also know this – linked with the development of that same donor country’s companies. And on the other hand, developed countries simultaneously keep their agricultural subsidies and limit some countries’ access to high-tech products.

And let’s say things as they are – one hand distributes charitable help and the other hand not only preserves economic backwardness but also reaps the profits thereof. The increasing social tension in depressed regions inevitably results in the growth of radicalism, extremism, feeds terrorism and local conflicts. And if all this happens in, shall we say, a region such as the Middle East where there is increasingly the sense that the world at large is unfair, then there is the risk of global destabilisation.

It is obvious that the world’s leading countries should see this threat. And that they should therefore build a more democratic, fairer system of global economic relations, a system that would give everyone the chance and the possibility to develop...According to the founding documents, in the humanitarian sphere the OSCE is designed to assist country members in observing international human rights norms at their request. This is an important task. We support this. But this does not mean interfering in the internal affairs of other countries, and especially not imposing a regime that determines how these states should live and develop.

It is obvious that such interference does not promote the development of democratic states at all. On the contrary, it makes them dependent and, as a consequence, politically and economically unstable.

We expect that the OSCE be guided by its primary tasks and build relations with sovereign states based on respect, trust and transparency....I very often – hear appeals by our partners, including our European partners, to the effect that Russia should play an increasingly active role in world affairs.

In connection with this I would allow myself to make one small remark. It is hardly necessary to incite us to do so.

Russia is a country with a history that spans more than a thousand years and has practically always used the privilege to carry out an independent foreign policy.

We are not going to change this tradition today. At the same time, we are well aware of how the world has changed and we have a realistic sense of our own opportunities and potential. And of course we would like to interact with responsible and independent partners with whom we could work together in constructing a fair and democratic world order that would ensure security and prosperity not only for a select few, but for all....

What are we indebted to in the past decades if there was a stand-off between two superpowers and two systems but nevertheless a big war did not take place? We are indebted to the balance of powers between these two superpowers. There was an equilibrium and a fear of mutual destruction. And in those days one party was afraid to make an extra step without consulting the other. And this was certainly a fragile peace and a frightening one. But as we see today, it was reliable enough. Today, it seems that the peace is not so reliable.

Yes, the United States is ostensibly not developing an offensive weapon. In any case, the public does not know about this. Even though they are certainly developing them. But we aren’t even going to ask about this now. We know that these developments are proceeding. But we pretend that we don’t know, so we say that they aren’t developing new weapons.

But what do we know? That the United States is actively developing and already strengthening an anti-missile defence system. Today this system is ineffective but we do not know exactly whether it will one day be effective. But in theory it is being created for that purpose. So hypothetically we recognise that when this moment arrives, the possible threat from our nuclear forces will be completely neutralised. Russia’s present nuclear capabilities, that is.

The balance of powers will be absolutely destroyed and one of the parties will benefit from the feeling of complete security. This means that its hands will be free not only in local but eventually also in global conflicts.

We are discussing this with you now. I would not want anyone to suspect any aggressive intentions on our part. But the system of international relations is just like mathematics. There are no personal dimensions.

And of course we should react to this. How? Either the same as you and therefore by building a multi-billion dollar anti-missile system or, in view of our present economic and financial possibilities, by developing an asymmetrical answer. So that everybody can understand that the anti-missile defence system is useless against Russia because we have certain weapons that easily overcome it. And we are proceeding in this direction. It is cheaper for us. And this is in no way directed against the United States themselves.

I completely agree if you say that the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) is not directed against us, just as our new weapons are not directed against you.... I will allow myself to remind both myself and my colleagues that according to the UN Charter peace-keeping operations require the sanction of both the UN and the UN Security Council. This is in the case of peace-keeping operations. But in the UN Charter there is also an article about self-defence. And no sanctions are required in this case.

What bothers us? I can say and I think that it is clear for all, that when these non-governmental organisations are financed by foreign governments, we see them as an instrument that foreign states use to carry out their Russian policies. That is the first thing.

The second. In every country there are certain rules for financing, shall we say, election campaigns. Financing from foreign governments, including within governmental campaigns, proceeds through non-governmental organisations. And who is happy about this? Is this normal democracy? It is secret financing. Hidden from society. Where is the democracy here? Can you tell me? No! You can’t tell me and you never will be able to. Because there is no democracy here, there is simply one state exerting influence on another.

But we are interested in developing civil society in Russia, so that it scolds and criticises the authorities, helps them determine their own mistakes, and correct their policies in Russian citizens’ interests. We are certainly interested in this and we will support civil society and non-governmental organisations.

As to fears and so on, are you aware that today Russians have fewer fears than citizens in many other countries? Because in the last few years we made cardinal changes to improve the economic well-being of our citizens. We still have a great many problems. And we still have a great many unresolved problems. Including problems linked with poverty. And I can tell you that fears basically come from this source."
Vladimir Putin, 2007

And that last remark by the Russian President informs what is arguably the most important thrust of the 2023 Foreign Policy Concept. Russia has faced the NATO trained and equipped proxy army, and will defeat it. Russia has faced and is defeating the most comprehensive and severe economic blockade the modern world has ever seen.

Strategy is not only military, it is economic and political. Therefore, Russia's strategic direction is turning to the growing Eurasian economies. Because, as the new document reveals, the Foreign Policy of Russia is, in its essence, about Russia's domestic economy, improving the lives of Russians through income earned from trade. But this trade has to be protected through multilateral and bilateral cooperation. Cooperation requires trust, transparency, globally accepted rules of conduct and commerce, fair play, balance (win:win), predictability, and a continual honest dialogue to settle differences.

It is also a domestic political document. Some of the themes in the Foreign Policy Concept echo the party platform of the currently dominant United Russia political party. This is a 'traditionalist' party that reflects the overwhelmingly conservative Russian population, and leans heavily on themes of family, national pride, religion and so forth.

[ Note: anything in square brackets is my commentary. I have also, for my own understanding, pulled some text apart to show lists of elements. Any bolded text is done for my convenience. I have also added some markup to enable links within the document - again, for my own ease of understanding. The english language original document is accessible at the link above. Although the Russian Government has marked it 'unofficial translation, it is probably because it hasn't been fully proof read. In other words, someone wants it out right now. Why?Because Russia takes over the Security Council Chair on 1 April 2023..]
My comments first published 1 April 2023.]
31 March 2023 15:00
The Concept of the Foreign Policy of the Russian Federation

Unofficial translation

APPROVED by Decree of the President of the Russian Federation
No. 229, March 31, 2023


of the Foreign Policy of the Russian Federation

I. General provisions

1. This Concept is a strategic planning document which provides a systemic vision of the national interests of the Russian Federation in the domain of foreign policy, basic principles, strategic goals, major objectives and priority areas of the Russian foreign policy.

2. The Concept is based on the Constitution of the Russian Federation, generally recognized principles and norms of international law, international treaties of the Russian Federation, federal laws, other statutes and regulations of the Russian Federation governing foreign policy activities of the federal authorities.

3. The Concept specifies certain provisions of the National Security Strategy of the Russian Federation and takes into account basic provisions of other strategic planning documents pertaining to international relations.

4. More than a thousand years of independent statehood, the cultural heritage of the preceding era, deep historical ties with the traditional European culture and other Eurasian cultures, and the ability to ensure harmonious coexistence of different peoples, ethnic, religious and linguistic groups on one common territory, which has been developed over many centuries, determine Russia's special position as a unique country-civilization and a vast Eurasian and Euro-Pacific power that brings together the Russian people and other peoples belonging to the cultural and civilizational community of the Russian world.

["The main point is that, as an independent state, Russia pursues a multi-vector foreign policy driven by its national priorities and the awareness of its special responsibility for maintaining peace and security at the global and regional levels.

More than a thousand years of independent statehood, rich cultural heritage and the ability to ensure harmonious coexistence of different peoples, ethnic, religious and linguistic groups on one common territory, which has been developed over many centuries, determine Russia's special position as a unique country-civilization."
Vladimir Putin 5 April 2023]

5. Russia's place in the world is determined by
its significant resources in all areas of living,
its status of a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council,
participant in the leading intergovernmental organizations and associations,
one of the two largest nuclear powers, and
the successor (continuing legal personality) of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR).

Russia, taking into account its decisive contribution to the victory in World War II and its active role in shaping the contemporary system of international relations and eliminating the global system of colonialism, is one of the sovereign centres of global development performing a historically unique mission aimed at
maintaining global balance of power and
building a multipolar international system, as well as
ensuring conditions for the peaceful progressive development of humanity on the basis of a unifying and constructive agenda.

[Russia's war effort - immensely costly in Russian blood, was the deciding factor in expelling the Nazi German invaders from Russian territory and enabling Russia to raise its flag over the Reichstag in Berlin. Russia was active in Africa helping emerging African States throw off their colonial 'masters'. Today, Russia casts western capital-investing competitors working in foreign countries as 'colonialist' or 'neo-colonialist', probably because it plays well to sentiment in Africa and other countries that were historically colonised by the west. Whether Russia's investment in former colonies offer any better terms than the West, or China, or the United Arab Emirates or anyone else, is a matter of debate.

Russia clearly states that it is the only one who can bring about a multipolar world. Why? Because it has powerful potential - one of the world's largest resource base of minerals, abundant energy, an educated workforce, the diplomatic good will, a technically competent, sober, and forward-looking leadership group, and the most advanced and competent defensively postured continental military force in the world. Most importantly, it uses its power potential in the service of achieving a fair and equitable trading system and in the interests of world peace.
"I am ...for now the leader of this big country. As such, it is fitting to show restraint and avoid displays of excessive aggressiveness. I do not think that this is my style in any case."
Vladimir Putin 27 October 2016

"Our country will continue performing a historically unique mission aimed at maintaining global balance of power and building a multipolar international system, as well as ensuring conditions for the peaceful progressive development of humanity on the basis of a unifying and constructive agenda."
Vladimir Putin 5 April 2023

"Today, the question is whether the world order will be truly fair, democratic and multipolar, or whether a small group of states will retain their ability to impose their will on other countries and resolve their own problems at the expense of others. To live at the expense of others is the principle that colonisers live by.
Sergey Lavrov 6 June 2023]

6. Russia pursues an independent and multi-vector foreign policy driven by its national interests and the awareness of its special responsibility for maintaining peace and security at the global and regional levels.

Russian foreign policy is
consistent, and

and is based on the respect for universally recognized principles and norms of international law and the desire for equitable international cooperation in order to solve common problems and promote common interests

Russia's attitude towards other states and interstate associations is contingent on the constructive, neutral or unfriendly character of their policies with respect to the Russian Federation.
[ Russia usually refers to 'friendly' or 'unfriendly' states. Here they using the term 'constructive' because it is talking about the nature of their policies, rather than the totality of a foreign states official attitude as it present itself to Russia.]


II. Today's world: major trends and prospects for development

7. Humanity is currently going through revolutionary changes.

The formation of a more equitable multipolar world order is underway.

The imbalanced model of world development which has for centuries ensured the advanced economic growth of colonial powers through the appropriation of resources of dependent territories and states in Asia, Africa and in the Occident is irrevocably fading into the past.

The sovereignty and competitive opportunities of non-Western world powers and regional leading countries are being strengthened.

Structural transformation of the world economy, its transfer to a new technological basis (including the introduction of artificial intelligence technologies, the latest information and communication, energy, biological technologies and nanotechnologies), the growth of national consciousness,

cultural and civilizational diversity and other objective factors accelerate the process of shifting the development potential to new centres of economic growth and geopolitical influence and promote the democratization of international relations.

8. The changes which are now taking place and which are generally favourable are nonetheless not welcomed by a number of states being used to the logic of global dominance and neocolonialism.

These countries refuse to recognize the realities of a multipolar world and to agree on the parameters and principles of the world order accordingly.

Attempts are made to restrain the natural course of history, to eliminate competitors in the politico-military and economic spheres, and to suppress dissent. A wide range of illegal instruments and methods is being used, including the introduction of coercive measures (sanctions) in circumvention of the UN Security Council, provocation of coups d'état and military conflicts, threats, blackmailing, manipulation of the consciousness of certain social groups and entire nations, offensive and subversive actions in the information space.

A wide-spread form of interference in the internal affairs of sovereign states has become the imposition of destructive neoliberal ideological attitudes that run counter to traditional spiritual and moral values. As a result, the destructive effect extends to all spheres of international relations.

9. Serious pressure is being put on the UN and other multilateral institutions the intended purpose of which, as platforms for harmonizing the interests of the leading powers, is artificially devalued.

The international legal system is put to the test: a small group of states is trying to replace it with the concept of a rules-based world order (imposition of rules, standards and norms that have been developed without equitable participation of all interested states).

It becomes more difficult to develop collective responses to transnational challenges and threats, such as the illicit arms trade, proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their means of delivery, dangerous pathogens and infectious diseases, the use of information and communication technologies for illicit purposes, international terrorism, illicit trafficking in narcotic drugs, psychotropic substances and their precursors, transnational organized crime and corruption, natural and man-made disasters, illegal migration, environmental degradation.

The culture of dialogue in international affairs is degrading, and the effectiveness of diplomacy as a means of peaceful dispute settlement is decreasing.

There is an acute lack of trust and predictability in international affairs.

10. The crisis of economic globalization is deepening.

Current problems, including in the energy market and in the financial sector, are caused by degradation of many previous development models and instruments, irresponsible macroeconomic solutions (including uncontrolled emission and accumulation of unsecured debts), illegal unilateral restrictive measures and unfair competition.

The abuse by certain states of their dominant position in some spheres intensifies the processes of fragmentation of the global economy and increases disparity in the development of states.

New national and trans-border payment systems are becoming widespread, there is a growing interest in new international reserve currencies, and prerequisites for diversifying international economic cooperation mechanisms are being created.

11. The role of the power factor in international relations is increasing, conflict areas are expanding in a number of strategically important regions.

Destabilizing build-up and modernization of offensive military capabilities and the destruction of the arms control treaty system are undermining strategic stability.

The use of military force in violation of international law,

the exploration of outer space and information space as new spheres of military action,

the blurring of the line between military and non-military means of inter-state confrontation, and

the escalation of protracted armed conflicts in a number of regions

increase the threat to global security, enhance the risk of collision between major states, including with the participation of nuclear powers, and the probability of such conflicts escalating and growing into a local, regional or global war.

[" If the United States continues following its current path of confrontation with Russia, increasing the stakes for an armed conflict, the future of the Start Treaty could be predetermined.

But if a worst-case scenario develops, that is, if Washington brings the situation to a military conflict between the world’s biggest nuclear powers, humanity will have to worry about the destiny of the entire world instead of trying to save the START treaty.

This confirms once again the fact that today the most acute threat is related not so much to the dynamics of incentives for a massive first strike, which agreements like the Start Treaty were largely designed to curb, as to the danger of nuclear escalation stemming from a direct military confrontation between nuclear powers. To my deep regret, these risks are steadily growing. 

This is exactly why we keep emphasising the risks in the US and NATO’s actions. They seem to have plunged into an illusion of impunity as they play around with chimeras like “escalation control” and “escalation dominance.” We continue sending the West sobering signals on the need to prevent a disaster, but they remain deaf to our appeals. Moreover, they maliciously distort them for propaganda purposes.

If the United States and its allies ultimately show that they are ready for this, there will be a chance for reaching new viable agreements with them in the areas of strategic stability and arms control.

We have not abandoned the possibility of signing international treaties to regulate our relations with the West in the field of strategic stability in the future, after we attain the goals of the ongoing special military operation.

I would like to repeat that this is only possible based on respect for Russia’s fundamental interests. This is the underlying message of the Foreign Policy Concept.

[Commenting on the possibility of a START Treaty including France and Britain] This possibility does not exist in the current situation. Arms control is inseparable from the general geopolitical and military strategic situation. Any serious steps in this area are always linked with constructive political processes in relations between the contracting parties.

There should be at least mutual realisation of the need for dialogue-based solutions and the political will to encourage the sides to conduct substantive talks based on compromise.

The West is not doing anything like this.

On the contrary, the US and its allies are waging a total hybrid war against Russia in a bid to inflict a strategic military defeat on our country and to try to contain it politically and economically. They hope that they will eventually manage to subordinate a weakened Russia to Western dictate from a position of strength.

However, as history has shown many times, this approach to Russia has no prospects for success."
Director of the Foreign Ministry Department for Nonproliferation and Arms Control Vladimir Yermakov 25 April 2023

12. A logical response to the crisis of the world order is the strengthening of cooperation between the states that are subject to external pressure.

The formation of regional and trans-regional mechanisms of economic integration and interaction in various spheres and the creation of multi-format partnerships to solve common problems are being intensified.

Other steps (including unilateral ones) are also being taken to protect the vital national interests.

High level of interdependences, global reach and transnational nature of challenges and threats limit the ability of individual states, military-political and trade and economic alliances to ensure security, stability and prosperity.

Effective solutions to the numerous problems of our time and peaceful progressive development of large and small nations and humanity as a whole can be achieved only through combining the potential of good faith efforts of the entire international community on the basis of the balance of power and interests.

13. Considering the strengthening of Russia as one of the leading centres of development in the modern world and its independent foreign policy as a threat to Western hegemony,
the United States of America (USA) and their satellites used the measures taken by the Russian Federation as regards Ukraine to protect its vital interests as a pretext to aggravate the longstanding anti-Russian policy and unleashed a new type of hybrid war.

It is aimed at weakening Russia in every possible way, including at undermining
its constructive civilizational role,
economic and technological capabilities,
limiting its sovereignty in foreign and domestic policy,
violating its territorial integrity.

This Western policy has become comprehensive and is now enshrined at the doctrinal level.

This was not the choice of the Russian Federation. Russia does not consider itself to be an enemy of the West,
is not isolating itself from the West and
has no hostile intentions with regard to it;

Russia hopes that in future the states belonging to the Western community will realize that their policy of confrontation and hegemonic ambitions lack prospects, will take into account the complex realities of a multipolar world and will resume pragmatic cooperation with Russia being guided by the principles of sovereign equality and respect for each other's interests.

The Russian Federation is ready for dialogue and cooperation on such a basis.

14. In response to unfriendly actions of the West, Russia intends to defend its right to existence and freedom of development using all means available.

The Russian Federation will concentrate its creative energy on the geographic vectors of its foreign policy which have obvious prospects in terms of expanding mutually beneficial international cooperation.

The majority of humanity is interested in having constructive relations with Russia and in strengthening Russia's positions on the international scene as an influential global power making a decisive contribution to maintaining global security and ensuring peaceful development of states.

This opens up a wide range of opportunities for the successful activity of the Russian Federation on the international scene.

 ["all available means" encompasses military and technical, political and economic. This is a clear warning of Russian intentions, and Russia has already gone down this path in it's economic response.

Russia's 'creative energy' of course relates to helping bring about bilateral trade, parity trade, a 'trading currency', and new means of clearing commercial payments, including using blockchain contracts. It also refers to harmonising inter-country trade regulations and dispute settlement, new contingency funds for capital liquidity and the like. I  have written about this here.

'Geographic vector' includes Russia's turn to the East, the Middle East, and to a lesser extent, South and Central America and maybe Mexico. China, India and other friendly countries together make up the bulk of the world's population.]

III. National interests of the Russian Federation in the foreign policy domain, strategic goals and key tasks set by the foreign policy of the Russian Federation

15. In view of the long-term trends in the world development, the national interests of the Russian Federation in the foreign policy domain are as follows:

1) to protect the constitutional system, sovereignty, independence, state and territorial integrity of the Russian Federation against any destructive external influence;

2) to maintain strategic stability, strengthen international peace and security;

3) to strengthen the legal foundations of international relations;

4) to protect the rights, freedoms and legitimate interests of Russian citizens, and to protect Russian entities against foreign illegal encroachment;

5) to develop safe information space, protect Russian society against destructive informational and psychological influence;

6) to preserve the Russian nation, build human capital, and improve the quality of life and well-being of citizens;

7) to promote sustainable development of Russian economy on a new technological basis;

8) to promote traditional Russian moral and spiritual values, preserve cultural and historical heritage of the multi-ethnic people of the Russian Federation;

9) to ensure environmental protection, conservation of natural resources and environmental management, and adapt to climate change.

16. Building on its national interests and strategic national priorities, the Russian Federation focuses its foreign policy activities on achieving the following goals:

1) to ensure security of the Russian Federation, its sovereignty in all domains, and territorial integrity;

2)  to create favourable external environment for sustainable development of Russia;

3)  to consolidate Russia's position as one of the responsible, powerful and independent centres of the modern world.

17. Strategic foreign policy goals of the Russian Federation are achieved through performing the following main tasks:

1) to shape an equitable and sustainable world order;

2)  to maintain international peace and security,
strategic stability,
ensure peaceful coexistence and progressive development of states and peoples;

3)  to assist in developing effective comprehensive responses by the international community to common challenges and threats, including regional conflicts and crises;

4)  to promote mutually beneficial and equal cooperation with all foreign states and their associations adopting a constructive stance, and mainstream Russian interests through mechanisms of multilateral diplomacy;

5)  to counter anti-Russian activities carried out by foreign states and their associations, and
create conditions conducive to stopping such activities;

6)  to establish good neighbourly relations with contiguous states, and contribute to the prevention and elimination of tensions and conflicts in their territories;

7) to provide assistance to Russian allies and partners in promoting shared interests, ensuring their security and sustainable development, irrespective of whether or not the allies and partners receive international recognition or membership of international organizations;

8) to unlock and strengthen the capacity of multilateral regional associations and integration structures with Russia's participation;

9) to consolidate Russia's position in the world economy, achieve national development goals for the Russian Federation, ensure economic security, and realize its economic potential;

10) to ensure Russia's interests in the world's oceans, space and airspace;

11) to ensure that Russia is perceived abroad objectively, consolidate its position in the international information space;

12)  to enhance Russia's role in the global humanitarian space, consolidate the position of the Russian language in the world, and contribute to the preservation abroad of historical truth and the memory of Russia's role in world history;

13)  to protect abroad, in a comprehensive and effective way, the rights, freedoms and legitimate interests of Russian citizens and entities;

14)  to develop ties with compatriots living abroad and render them full support in exercising their rights, ensuring protection of their interests and preserving all-Russian cultural identity.


IV. Foreign policy priorities of the Russian Federation

Establishment of an equitable and sustainable world order

18. Russia is striving towards a system of international relations that would guarantee reliable security, preservation of its cultural and civilizational identity, and equal opportunities for the development for all states, regardless of their geographical location, size of territory, demographic, resource and military capacity, or political, economic and social structure. In order to meet these criteria, the system of international relations should be multipolar and based on the following principles:

1) sovereign equality of states, respect for their right to choose models of development, and social, political and economic order;

2)  rejection of hegemony in international affairs;

3)  cooperation based on a balance of interests and mutual benefit;

4)  non-interference in internal affairs;

5)  rule of international law in regulating international relations, with all states abandoning the policy of double standards;

6)  indivisibility of security in global and regional aspects;

7) diversity of cultures, civilizations and models of social organization, non-imposition on other countries by all states of their models of development, ideology and values, and reliance on a spiritual and moral guideline that is common for all world traditional religions and secular ethical systems;

8)  responsible leadership on the part of leading nations aimed at ensuring stable and favourable conditions of development, both for themselves and for all other countries and peoples;

9)  the primary role of sovereign states in decision-making regarding the maintenance of international peace and security.

["the Western leaders have forgotten that the key principle of the United Nations Charter is sovereign equality of all states regardless of the size of the territory, population, form of government, or political or socioeconomic system. The West is grossly violating this principle of sovereign equality of states, dividing the world into “democracies” and “autocracies,” or “autocratic regimes.”

If we call things by their proper names, the division is into the “select few” that are allowed to do whatever they please and into the “others” that have to follow the “golden billion” and cater to its interests.

The essence of US policy, now that the United States has brought to heel all of Europe, is this: they have the right to do whatever they want and the rest – only what they are allowed."
Sergey Lavrov 6 June 2023 ]

19.   In order to help adapt the world order to the realities of a multipolar world, the Russian Federation intends to make it a priority to:

1) eliminate the vestiges of domination by the US and other unfriendly states in global affairs, create conditions to enable any state to renounce neo-colonial or hegemonic ambitions;

2) improve international mechanisms for ensuring security and development at the global and regional levels;

3) restore the UN's role as the central coordinating mechanism in reconciling the interests of UN Member States and their actions in pursuit of the goals of the UN Charter;

4) enhance the capacity and international role of the interstate association of BRICS, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO), the RIC (Russia, India, China) and other interstate associations and international organizations, as well as mechanisms with strong Russian participation;

5) support regional and sub-regional integration within friendly multilateral institutions, dialogue platforms and regional associations in Asia Pacific, Latin America, Africa and the Middle East;

6) enhance sustainability and progressive development of the international legal system;

7) ensure equitable access for all states to the benefits of the global economy and division of labour at the international level, as well as to modern technology in the interest of fair and even development (including addressing global energy and food security);

8) intensify cooperation in all areas with Russia's allies and partners, and
suppress the attempts by unfriendly states to obstruct such cooperation;

9) consolidate international efforts to ensure respect for and protection of universal and traditional spiritual and moral values (including ethical norms common to all world religions), and counter the attempts to impose pseudo-humanistic or other neo-liberal ideological views, leading to the loss by the humankind of traditional spiritual and moral values and integrity;

10)  promote constructive dialogue, partnerships, and cross-fertilization of various cultures, religions and civilizations.

["The new Foreign Policy Concept of the Russian Federation, approved by President of Russia Vladimir Putin in March 2023, highlights the SCO’s role in a new international order.

It lists the SCO as one of the centres of an emerging multipolar international order, along with the EAEU, the CSTO, the CIS, ASEAN, regional associations of developing countries in Africa, Latin America and Asia."
Sergey Lavrov 5 May 2023 ]


Rule of Law in International Relations

20. Ensuring the rule of law in international relations serves as one of the foundations of a just and sustainable world order, maintenance of global stability, peaceful and fruitful cooperation between states and their associations, and a factor in easing international tensions and increasing the predictability of world development.

21. Russia consistently advocates strengthening the legal fundamentals of international relations, and faithfully complies with its international legal obligations.

At the same time, decisions of interstate bodies adopted on the basis of provisions of international treaties of the Russian Federation which collide with the Constitution may not be executed in the Russian Federation.

22. The mechanism for shaping universal international legal standards should be based on the free will of sovereign states, and the UN should remain the main venue for progressive development and codification of international law.

Further promotion of the concept of a rules-based world order is fraught with the destruction of the international legal system and other dangerous consequences for humanity.

23. In the interests of increasing sustainability of the international legal system, preventing its fragmentation or decay, and avoiding indiscriminate use of generally recognized norms of international law, the Russian Federation intends to make it a priority to:

1) counter the attempts to replace, revise or interpret in an arbitrary way the principles of international law enshrined in the UN Charter and Declaration on Principles of International Law concerning Friendly Relations and Cooperation among States in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, as of 24 October 1970;

2) progressively develop, including given the realities of a multipolar world, and codify international law, primarily within the efforts taken under the aegis of the United Nations, as well as ensure participation of the maximum possible number of states in the UN international treaties, and universal interpretation and application thereof;

3) consolidate the efforts taken by states that advocate restoration of universal respect for international law and enhancement of its role as the basis of international relations;

4) exclude from international relations the practice of taking illegal unilateral coercive measures in violation of the UN Charter;

5) improve the mechanism for applying international sanctions, based on the exclusive competence of the UN Security Council to impose such measures and the need to ensure their effectiveness in maintaining international peace and security and preventing a deterioration of the humanitarian situation;

6) step up the process of international and legal formulation of the state border of the Russian Federation and its maritime boundaries, within which it exercises its sovereign rights and jurisdiction, based on the necessity of providing unconditional support for its national interests, and importance to strengthen good neighbourly relations, confidence and cooperation with contiguous states.


Strengthening international peace and security

24. The Russian Federation proceeds from the indivisibility of international security (in global and regional aspects) and seeks to ensure it equally for all states on the basis of the principle of reciprocity. On this basis, Russia is open to joint actions together with all interested states and interstate associations to shape a renewed, more stable international security architecture. In order to maintain and strengthen international peace and security, the Russian Federation intends to give priority attention to:

1) using peaceful means, primarily diplomacy, negotiations, consultations, mediation and good offices, to resolve international disputes and conflicts, settle them on the basis of mutual respect, compromises and a balance of legitimate interests;

2) establishing broad cooperation in order to neutralize the attempts by any states and interstate associations to seek global dominance in the military sphere, project their power beyond their area of responsibility, assume primary responsibility for maintaining international peace and security, draw dividing lines and ensure the security of some states to the detriment of legitimate interests of other countries. Such attempts are incompatible with the spirit, purposes and principles of the UN Charter and pose a threat of regional conflicts and a world war to the present and future generations;

3) building up political and diplomatic efforts aimed at preventing the use of military force in violation of the UN Charter, primarily attempts to bypass the prerogatives of the UN Security Council and violate the conditions of use of the inalienable right to self-defense guaranteed by Article 51 of the UN Charter;

4)  adopting political and diplomatic measures to counter interference with the internal affairs of sovereign states, primarily aimed at complicating the domestic political situation, unconstitutional regime change or violation of the territorial integrity of states;

5) ensuring strategic stability, eliminating the prerequisites for unleashing a global war, risks of using nuclear and other types of weapons of mass destruction, shaping a renewed international security architecture, preventing and resolving international and internal armed conflicts, addressing transnational challenges and threats in certain areas of international security.

25. The Russian Federation proceeds from the premise that its Armed Forces can be used in accordance with the generally recognized principles and norms of international law, international treaties of the Russian Federation and legislation of the Russian Federation. Russia considers Article 51 of the UN Charter as an adequate and not to be revised legal basis for the use of force in self-defence. The use of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation can address, in particular, the tasks of repelling and preventing an armed attack on Russia and (or) its allies, resolving crises, maintaining (restoring) peace as commissioned by the UN Security Council or other collective security structures with the participation of Russia in their area of responsibility, protecting their citizens abroad, combating international terrorism and piracy.

26. In the event of unfriendly acts by foreign states or their associations threatening the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the Russian Federation, including those involving restrictive measures (sanctions) of a political or economic nature or the use of modern information and communication technologies, the Russian Federation considers it lawful to take the symmetrical and asymmetrical measures necessary to suppress such unfriendly acts and also to prevent them from recurring in future.

27. In order to ensure strategic stability, eliminate the prerequisites for unleashing a global war and risks of using nuclear and other types of weapons of mass destruction, and shaping a renewed international security architecture, the Russian Federation intends to give priority attention to:

1) strategic deterrence, preventing the aggravation of interstate relations to a level capable of provoking military conflicts, including with the use of nuclear and other types of weapons of mass destruction;

2) strengthening and developing the system of international treaties in the areas of strategic stability, arms control, prevention of the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, their means of delivery, and related goods and technologies (also mindful of the risk of such weapons' components falling into the hands of non-state actors);

3) strengthening and developing international political foundations (arrangements) for maintaining strategic stability, regimes of arms control and non-proliferation of all types of weapons of mass destruction and their means of delivery, with mandatory comprehensive and coherent consideration of all types of weapons and factors affecting strategic stability;

4) preventing an arms race and precluding its transfer to new environments, creating conditions for further phased reduction of nuclear potentials, taking into account all the factors affecting strategic stability;

5) increasing predictability in international relations, implementing and, as necessary, improving confidence-building measures in the military and international spheres, and preventing unintentional armed incidents;

6)  implementing security guarantees in respect of states parties to regional treaties on nuclear-weapon-free zones;

7) conventional arms control, combating illicit small arms and light weapons traffic;

8) strengthening nuclear safety and security at the global level and preventing acts of nuclear terrorism;

9) developing cooperation in the field of the peaceful uses of atomic energy to meet the needs of all interested states in fuel and energy, taking into account the right of each state to independently determine its national policy in this area;

10) strengthening the role of multilateral export control mechanisms in the areas of ensuring international security and non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their means of delivery, opposing transformation of these mechanisms into a tool of unilateral restrictions that impede the implementation of legitimate international cooperation.

28.  In order to strengthen regional security, prevent local and regional wars, and settle internal armed conflicts (primarily on the territories of neighbouring states), the Russian Federation intends to give priority attention to:

1) adopting political and diplomatic measures to prevent emerging threats or reduce the level of threats to Russia's security from neighbouring territories and states;

2) supporting allies and partners in ensuring defence and security, suppressing attempts of external interference with their internal affairs;

3) developing military, military-political and military-technical cooperation with allies and partners;

4) assistance in the creation and improvement of mechanisms for ensuring regional security and settling crises in regions important to Russia's interests;

5) Russia's enhanced role in peacekeeping activities (including within cooperation with the UN, regional international organizations and parties to conflicts), strengthened peacekeeping and anti-crisis potential of the UN and the CSTO.

29. In order to prevent the rise of biological threats and ensure biological safety, the Russian Federation intends to give priority to:

1) investigating cases of alleged development, deployment and use of biological and toxin weapons, primarily in the territories of neighbouring states;

2) preventing terrorist acts and (or) sabotage committed with the use of dangerous pathogens and mitigation of consequences of such acts and (or) sabotage;

3) enhancing cooperation with allies and partners in the field of biological security, primarily with the CSTO and CIS member states.

30. In order to ensure international information security, counter threats against it, and strengthen Russian sovereignty in the global cyberspace, the Russian Federation intends to give priority attention to:

1) strengthening and improving the international legal regime for preventing and resolving interstate conflicts and regulating activities in the global cyberspace;

2) shaping and improving an international legal framework for countering criminal uses of information and communication technologies;

3) ensuring the safe and stable Internet operation and development based on the equitable participation of states in the management of this network and precluding foreign control over its national segments;

4) adopting political, diplomatic and other measures aimed at countering the policy of unfriendly states to weaponize the global cyberspace, use information and communication technologies to interfere with the internal affairs of states for military purposes, as well as limit the access of other states to advanced information and communication technologies and increase their technological dependence.

31. In order to eradicate international terrorism and protect the state and Russian citizens from terrorist acts, the Russian Federation intends to give priority attention to:

1) increased efficiency and coordination of multilateral cooperation in the anti-terrorist field, including within the UN framework;

2) strengthening the decisive role of states and their competent authorities in the fight against terrorism and extremism;

3) adopting political, diplomatic and other measures aimed at countering the use by states of terrorist and extremist (including neo-Nazi) organizations as a foreign and domestic policy tool;

4) combating the spread of terrorist and extremist ideology (including neo-Nazism and radical nationalism), in particular on the Internet;

5)  identifying individuals and organizations involved in terrorist activities and suppressing channels for terrorist financing;

6) identifying and eliminating international legal regulation gaps related to cooperation in the field of anti-terrorism, in particular taking into account the risks of terrorist attacks with the use of chemical biological agents;

7) enhancing multifaceted cooperation with allies and partners in the field of anti-terrorism, providing them with practical assistance in counter-terrorism operations, including for the protection of Christians in the Middle East.

32. For the purpose of combatting the illicit traffic in, and consumption of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances that pose a serious threat to the international and national security, citizens' health and moral and spiritual foundations of the Russian society, the Russian Federation intends to give priority to:

1) enhancing the international cooperation with a view of avoiding the weakening or revision of the current global drug control regime (including the legalization thereof for non-medical purposes) as well as counteracting other initiatives that may entail the increase in the illicit drug trafficking and consumption;

2) rendering practical assistance to the allies and partners in carrying out anti-drug activities.

33. For the purpose of combating the transnational organized crime and corruption that cause a growing threat to the security and sustainable development of Russia, its allies and partners, the Russian Federation intends to give priority to enhancing the international cooperation with the goal of eliminating the safe havens for criminals and strengthening multilateral mechanisms that accord with the national interests of Russia.

34. For the purpose of reducing, in the territory of the Russian Federation, the risks that arise from the natural and man-made disasters occurring beyond it and enhancing the robustness of foreign countries against them, the Russian Federation intends to give priority to:

1) strengthening the organizational and legal framework and improving the mechanisms for bilateral and multilateral interaction in the area of the protection of population from natural and man-made emergencies, building capacity for early warning and forecasting of such emergencies, and overcoming their consequences;

2) providing the practical assistance to foreign states in the area of protection from natural and man-made emergencies, including the use of unique Russian technologies and experience in emergency response.

35. For the purpose of combating the illegal migration and improving the international migrations regulation, the Russian Federation intends to give priority to strengthening the interaction in this area with the CIS member states that pursue a constructive policy towards the Russian Federation.


Ensuring the interests of the Russian Federation

in the World Ocean, outer space and airspace

36.  For the purpose of studying, exploring and using the World Ocean with a view of ensuring the security and development of Russia, counteracting unilateral restrictive measures on behalf of the unfriendly states and their associations towards Russian marine activities, the Russian Federation intends to give priority to:

1) ensuring a secure free, safe and comprehensive access of Russia to vital, essential and other environments, transport communications and resources of the World Ocean;

2) responsible and efficient exploration of biological, mineral, energy and other resources of the World Ocean, development of marine pipeline systems, conduct of scientific research, protection and preservation of the marine environment;

3) consolidating on the external borders of the continental shelf of the Russian Federation in accordance with the international law and protecting its sovereign rights on the continental shelf.

37. For the purpose of peaceful study and uses of outer space, consolidation of its leadership positions on the space goods, works and services markets, reinforcement of its status as one of the leading space powers, the Russian Federation intends to give priority to:

1) promoting the international cooperation with a view of preventing an arms race in outer space, primarily by developing and concluding a relevant international treaty, and, as an intermediary step, by all states parties undertaking not to be the first to place weapons in outer space;

2) geographic diversification of the international cooperation in the sphere of outer space.

[Russia is likely to partner with China as well as US in space programs.]

38. For the purpose of using the international airspace in the interests of the security and development of Russia, counteracting the unilateral restrictive measures on behalf of the unfriendly countries and their associations towards Russian aircraft, the Russian Federation intends to give priority to:

1) ensuring a secure access of Russia to the international (open) airspace taking into account the principle of freedom of flights;

2) geographic diversification of the international flight routes for the Russian aircraft and development of cooperation in the sphere of aerial transportation, protection and use of airspace with the states that pursue a constructive policy towards Russia.


International economic cooperation and support of international development

39. For the purpose of ensuring the economic security, economic sovereignty, sustainable economic growth, structural and technological renewal, improving the international competitiveness of the national economy, preserving the leading positions of Russia in the world economy, reducing risks and capturing opportunities arising from the deep changes in the world economy and international relations as well as based on unfriendly actions by foreign states and their associations, the Russian Federation intends to give priority to:

1) accommodating the world trade and monetary and financial systems taking into account the realities of the multipolar world and consequences of the crisis of economic globalization, first and foremost with a view of narrowing the possibilities for the unfriendly states to excessively use their monopolistic or dominant stand in certain spheres of the world economy, and enhancing the participation of the developing countries in the global economic management;

[ Russia has more or less moved out from the International foreign exchanges involved in currency forward sales and the 'derivatives' markets. It has located major foreign exchange operations in Russia, and given that the Europeans are obliged to pay for natural gas and oil in rubles, which they must exchange their euros for in the Russian exchange, this has developed into a good business for the exchange. Up until September 2023, foreigners were not allowed to participate in Russian forex and derivatives markets, causing a lack of market liquidity due to the lower diversity and dept of local Russian participants.

In July 2022, the Russian government designated those countries actively involved in attacking Russia materially or diplomatically as 'unfriendly' states. Those who refused to take sides are regarded as ''neutral' states. Those who either supported Russia's position or refused to implement the illegal western unilateral trade restrictions are regarded as 'friendly states'.

The register of unfriendly states includes the United States of America, the European Union States, Canada, Britain, Ukraine, Japan, South Korea, Norway, Australia, Singapore, New Zealand, Taiwan, Micronesia, Montenegro, Albania, Switzerland, Andorra, Lichtenstein, Monaco, San Marino, Czech Republic, and North Macedonia.

The Russian assets of unfriendly states have been severely restricted, but on the flip side, as of July 2023, the Russian government passed a federal law “On Organized Auctions,” listing approved bankers and brokers from 31 friendly states. These approved entities will be allowed to trade of the Russian forex, and as a result, the ruble should stabilise at lower amplitude. In addition, it makes it easier for trade between Russia and friendly/neutral countries using the ruble.

The list of friendly countries so approved is : China, India, Belarus,  Kazakhstan, the United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Türkiye, Iran, Brazil, Azerbaijan, Egypt, South Africa, Algeria, Venezuela, Vietnam, Bahrain, Indonesia, Cuba, Qatar, Kyrgyzstan, Malaysia, Morocco, Mongolia, Tajikistan, Thailand, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Oman, Pakistan, Armenia, Bangladesh, and Serbia.]

2) reducing the dependence of the Russian economy on the unfriendly actions of foreign states, primarily by developing a de-politicized, safe, independent from the unfriendly states international payment infrastructure and enlarging the use of national currencies in payments with the allies and partners;

3)  enhancing the Russian presence on the world markets, increasing the non-resource based, non-energy export;
to the geographic diversification of economic ties in order to re-direct them to the states that pursue a constructive and neutral policy towards the Russian Federation, while remaining to be open to the pragmatic cooperation with the business circles of the unfriendly states;

[Once again, Russia does not 'cut off it's nose to spite it's face'. It is willing to allow foreign businesses to buy Russian exports and to work within Russia, as long as those businesses are engaged in practical work that furthers the well-being of the people of Russia...
"The use of politically motivated unilateral restrictions by the majority of US-led Western countries has become a sign of the times. Sanctions are introduced for everything, both for a reason and without it. A flagrant example is what is being done with Nord Stream 2. [comment: this statement was made before a state sponsored actor blew up the pipeline.]

We respond to such unfriendly steps in a balanced and appropriate manner, being guided by the need to maintain the sustainability of the domestic economy and financial system. At the same time, we offer our own positive agenda for ensuring equitable cooperation and a balance of interests in international economic relations without discrimination."
Sergey Lavrov  23 November 2021 "]

4) improving the conditions for Russia to access the world markets; protecting the Russian organizations, investments, goods and services beyond the country from discrimination, unfair competition, attempts of the foreign states to unilaterally regulate the world markets that are key for the Russian export;

5) protecting the Russian economy and international trade and economic ties from unfriendly actions of foreign states by applying special economic measures in response to such actions;

6) facilitating the attraction to Russia of foreign investments, advance knowledge and technologies and high-quality specialists;

7) promoting the processes of regional and interregional economic integration that serve Russia's interests, first of all, within the Union State, EAEU, CIS, SCO, BRICS as well as with a view of shaping the Greater Eurasian Partnership;

8) capitalizing on the unique geographical position and transit capacity of Russia to advance the national economy and strengthen the transport and infrastructure connectivity in Eurasia.

40. For the purpose of enhancing the robustness of the system of international relations against crises, improving the social and economic as well as humanitarian situations in the world, relieving the consequences of the military conflicts, implementing the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda, promoting a positive attitude toward Russia in the world, the Russian Federation intends to promote the international development while giving priority to the social and economic development of the Republic of Abkhazia, the Republic of South Ossetia, EAEU member states, CIS member states that support good-neighbour relations with Russia as well as developing states that pursue a constructive policy towards the Russian Federation.


Environmental protection and global health

[Russia - or rather, the Russian President - was initially ambivalent about the fossil fuel cause of climate change, although he noted that whatever the cause, Russia "cannot go wrong" by reducing anthropogenic emissions. He noted that regardless of what countries say, in reality "...we do not see the transition. What we see is the man's efforts to develop alternative energy sources, but so far there is no critical transition from hydrocarbons to renewable sources – critical from the standpoint of those who produce oil, gas and coal." He also notes that natural gas - which Russia has in abundance - is the least damaging of the fossil fuels, but countries show no letup in the use of coal.

By 2022 he was fully aware of the human fossil-fuel driven nature of climate change, and committed to reducing emissions. It will be 'too little, too late', but this is the story in almost every country of the world.

"It is a huge challenge to the world, to the whole of humanity, including to us, to Russia, where permafrost occupies 65 percent of our national territory. Such changes can do irreparable damage to biological diversity, have an extremely adverse effect on the economy and infrastructure and pose a direct threat to people.

You may be aware that this is very important to us. It affects pipeline systems, residential districts built on permafrost, and so on. If as much as 25 percent of the near-surface layers of permafrost, which is about three or four metres, melt by 2100, we will feel the effect very strongly.

Moreover, the problem could snowball into a crisis very quickly. A kind of chain reaction is possible, because permafrost melting will stimulate methane emissions, which can produce a greenhouse effect that will be 28 times larger than in the case of carbon dioxide. In other words, the temperature will continue rising on the planet, permafrost will continue melting, and methane emissions will further increase. The situation will spiral. Do we want the Earth to become like Venus, a hot, dry and lifeless planet? I would like to remind you that the Earth has an average surface temperature of 14°C while on Venus it’s 462°C.

Now I would like to say a few words about oil and everything connected with it, the demand for oil and so on. We are working on alternative energy sources ourselves. We are one of the richest countries in hydrocarbons, oil and gas, but this does not mean at all that we should not think about the future. We are thinking about it and about solar energy and hydrogen energy. We are working on this. Moreover, we are working on this with a view to improving the current situation.

You know for sure that we have adopted a decision in line with which in 2022 we must make our 300 largest contaminators, that is, 300 major companies that are the biggest emitters of these gases, switch to the most accessible, latest technology that would minimise emissions into the atmosphere and into the environment in general of any pollutants, and reduce these emissions by 20 percent by 2024. But we understand that by dealing with these 300 companies and 12 cities where most of them are located, we will not drastically improve the situation.

Our strategy in this respect is aimed at halving all anthropogenic emissions by 2030. We must move towards this goal. We have set it for ourselves and will pursue it consistently. We will work on it.

That said, I do not think it will be realistic, provided every country wants to be competitive, to abandon hydrocarbons in the near future. I believe the near future embraces several decades: 30, 40 and 50 years from now. This is simply unrealistic."
Vladimir Putin 22 October 2022 ]

[Russia has large hydro power and nuclear power potential, but takes the view that like it or not, the objective facts at the moment point to the continued consumption of fossils fuels to maintain current conditions of life. Russia has large complements of fossil fuels and clearly intends to meet global demand with them. At the same time, Russia is going to 'do more' to increase the percent of renewable energy in its domestic energy mix.

"According to expert data, global energy consumption will increase in the coming decades, and the ratio between hydrocarbons and renewable sources, such as nuclear power and hydropower, will remain about the same.

Today (whether it is good or bad, but this is the case) this relationship between different sources remains unchanged. The total volume is up.

Let us not forget that Russia is a vast country with hydropower capabilities, and we are expanding and will continue to expand nuclear energy. Nuclear power accounts for only 16 percent of energy generation. In France, it is already more than 90 percent, and we have only 16. We have to get to at least 25. Our neighbours, Finland, are going to build as well. And so on. So, we have not missed anything."
Vladimir Putin 9 April 2019]

41. For the purpose of preserving the favourable environment, improving of its quality, and intelligently adapt Russia to the climate changes in the interests of modern and future generations, the Russian Federation intends to give priority to:

1) promoting the scientifically sound, non-politicized international efforts to limit the negative impacts on the environment (including greenhouse gas emission reduction), maintaining and enhancing the absorbent capabilities of ecosystems;

2) expanding cooperation with the allies and partners with a view to counteracting the politicization of the international nature-oriented and climate activity, primarily its implementation with a goal of unfair competition, interference in the internal affairs of states and limitation of the states' sovereignty in connection with their natural resources;

3) maintaining the right of every state to choose for itself the best suitable mechanisms and methods of environmental protection and adaptation to climate change;

4) facilitating the elaboration of uniform, understandable and global rules of environmental climate regulation taking into account the Paris Climate Agreement of 12 December 2015, adopted within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change dated 9 May 1992;

5) increasing the efficiency of the international cooperation in the area of development and introduction of the state-of-the-art technologies that would enable the preservation of favourable environment and its improved quality as well as adaptation of the states to the climate change;

"We face many problems related to climate change in general. We know that the US did not sign the Paris Agreement, and the US Administration has its own reasons and logic. I am not among those who feel the current Administration should be attacked for this, we just need to engage in dialogue.

And in that case I think we will be able to try to find a common solution. Because it is hard to expect effective work from the international community without US participation in the process, or China’s or India’s participation, for example.

The US is a big emitter. It is obvious, and we must acknowledge it. This is why a solution must be found, the US should be brought on board and invited to engage in dialogue. On the whole, as I see it, Mr Trump does not refuse. That is number one, and even number two.

Third, I feel that many bilateral matters are currently perceived under the pressure of the domestic political situation. We hope when the situation gets back to normal, prospects will open for cooperation, including bilateral, on the issues I mentioned."
Vladimir Putin 9 April 2019

6) preventing the transborder damaging of the environment of the Russian Federation, primarily the transmission to its territory across its border of the contaminating agents (including radioactive substances), quarantine, highly hazardous and dangerous crop pests, anti-crop agents, undesirable plants and micro-agents.

42. For the purpose of protecting health and ensuring the social welfare of the people of Russia and other states, the Russian Federation intends to give priority to:

1) increasing efficiency of the international cooperation in the area of healthcare and preventing its politicization, including within international organizations;

2) consolidating international efforts in order to prevent the extension of dangerous infectious diseases, timely and efficiently respond to sanitary and epidemiological emergencies, combat chronic non-contagious diseases, overcome social and economic consequences of pandemics and epidemics;

3) increasing efficiency of international scientific research in healthcare, primarily aimed at developing and introducing new means of prevention, diagnostics and treatment of diseases.


International humanitarian cooperation

43. For the purpose of strengthening the role of Russia in the world humanitarian space, shaping a positive attitude thereto abroad, enhancing the positions of the Russian language in the world, counteracting the Russophobia campaign led by the unfriendly foreign states and their associations as well as enhancing mutual understanding and confidence among states, the Russian Federation intends to give priority to:

1) raising awareness and protecting against discrimination outside the country of the national developments in the sphere of culture, sciences and arts as well as strengthening the image of Russia as a state attractive for life, work, education and tourism;

2) promoting the Russian language and strengthening its status as a language of international communication, one of the official UN languages and of several other international organizations; promoting its learning and use abroad (primarily in the CIS member states); preserving and strengthening the role of the Russian language in inter-ethnic and inter-state communication, including within international organizations; protecting the Russian language from discrimination abroad;

3) developing mechanisms of public diplomacy with the participation of representatives and institutions of civil society with a constructive attitude towards Russia, as well as political scientists, representatives of the expert and scientific community, youth, volunteer, search and other social movements;

4) promoting the development of international relations between religious organizations belonging to Russia's traditional religions, and protecting the Russian Orthodox Church from discrimination abroad, including in the interests of ensuring the unity of Orthodoxy;

5) assisting in the creation of a single humanitarian space of the Russian Federation and the CIS member states, preserving centuries-old civilizational and spiritual ties between the people of Russia and the peoples of these states;

6) ensuring guaranteed free access for Russian athletes and sports organizations to international sports activities, facilitating their depoliticization, improving the work of international sports intergovernmental and public organizations, and developing new formats for international sports cooperation with states pursuing a constructive policy towards Russia.

44. With the purpose of countering the falsification of history, incitement of hatred against Russia, spread of the ideology of neo-Nazism, racial and national exclusivity, and aggressive nationalism, and strengthening the moral, legal and institutional foundations of contemporary international relations based primarily on the universally recognized outcomes of World War II, the Russian Federation intends to give priority to:

1) disseminating accurate information abroad about the role and place of Russia in world history and the formation of a just world order, including the decisive contribution of the Soviet Union to the victory over Nazi Germany and to the founding of the UN, its extensive assistance in decolonization and the formation of statehood of the peoples of Africa, Asia and Latin America;

2) taking both within relevant international platforms and at the level of bilateral relations with foreign partners the necessary measures to counteract the distortion of information about significant events in world history relating to Russian interests, including the suppression of crimes, the rehabilitation and glorification of German Nazis, Japanese militarists and their collaborators;

3) taking response measures against foreign states and their associations, foreign officials, organizations and citizens involved in committing unfriendly acts against Russian sites of historical and memorial significance located abroad;

4) promoting constructive international cooperation to preserve historical and cultural heritage.


Protection of Russian citizens and organizations

from foreign unlawful infringements, support for compatriots

living abroad, international cooperation in the field of human rights

45. With the of protecting the rights, freedoms and lawful interests of Russian citizens (including minors), Russian organizations from foreign unlawful infringements, and countering the campaign of Russophobia unleashed by unfriendly states, the Russian Federation intends to give priority to:

1) monitoring of unfriendly actions against Russian citizens and organizations, such as the use of restrictive measures (sanctions) of a political or economic nature, unfounded legal prosecution, the commission of crimes, discrimination, incitement to hatred;

2) taking enforcement actions and special economic measures against foreign states and their associations, foreign officials, organizations and citizens involved in committing unfriendly acts against Russian citizens and organizations and in violating the fundamental rights and freedoms of compatriots living abroad;

3) enhancing the effectiveness of global, regional and bilateral mechanisms for the international protection of the rights, freedoms and legitimate interests of Russian citizens and the protection of Russian organizations, as well as developing new mechanisms in this area, where necessary.

46. With a view to developing ties with compatriots living abroad and providing them with comprehensive support (given their significant contribution to the preservation and dissemination of the Russian language and Russian culture) in connection with their systematic discrimination in several states, the Russian Federation, as the core of the civilizational community of the Russian world, intends to give priority to:

1) promoting the consolidation of compatriots living abroad who have a constructive attitude towards Russia and supporting them in protecting their rights and legitimate interests in their states of residence, primarily in hostile states, in preserving their all-Russian cultural and linguistic identity, Russian spiritual and moral values, and their ties with their historic Motherland;

2) assisting voluntary resettlement of compatriots who have a constructive attitude towards Russia, especially those who suffer discrimination in their states of residence, in the Russian Federation.

47. Russia recognizes and guarantees human and civil rights and freedoms in accordance with generally recognized principles and rules of international law, and considers the renunciation of hypocrisy and faithful implementation by states of their obligations in this area to be a condition for the progressive and harmonious development of mankind. With the purpose of promoting respect for and observance of human rights and freedoms in the world, the Russian Federation intends to give priority to:

1) ensuring that the interests of Russia and its national, social, cultural, spiritual, moral, and historical characteristics are taken into account when strengthening international legal regulations and international mechanisms in the area of human rights;

2)  monitoring and making public the real situation regarding the observance of human rights and freedoms in the world, primarily in states claiming their exclusive position in human rights issues and in setting international standards in this area;

3)  eradicating double standards policies in international human rights cooperation, and making it non-politicized, equitable and mutually respectful;

4) countering the use of human rights issues as a tool for external pressure, interference in the internal affairs of states and destructive influence on the activities of international organizations;

5)  taking action against foreign states and their associations, foreign officials, organizations, and citizens involved in violations of fundamental human rights and freedoms.


Information support for the foreign policy of the Russian Federation

48. With the purpose of forming an objective perception of Russia abroad, strengthening its position in the global information space, countering the coordinated anti-Russian propaganda campaign carried out on a systematic basis by unfriendly states and involving disinformation, defamation and incitement to hatred, and ensuring free access of the population of foreign states to accurate information, the Russian Federation intends to give priority to:

1) making truthful information about the Russian Federation's foreign and domestic policies, its history and achievements in various spheres of life, and other accurate information about Russia available to the widest possible foreign audience;

2)  facilitating the dissemination of information abroad to promote international peace and understanding, develop and establish friendly relations between states, strengthen traditional spiritual and moral values as a unifying principle for all mankind, and enhance Russia's role in the global humanitarian space;

3) ensuring protection from discrimination abroad and assisting in strengthening the position of Russian information and communications media, including domestic digital information platforms, in the global information space, as well as constructively-minded media of compatriots living abroad towards Russia;

4) improving the tools and methods of information support for the foreign policy activities of the Russian Federation, including more effective use of modern information and communication technologies, including social networks;

5) improving international mechanisms and norms of regulation and protection of information and communication media, for ensuring free access to them and creating and disseminating information;

6) creating an enabling environment for foreign media to operate in Russia on the basis of reciprocity;

7) the further formation of a common information space of the Russian Federation and the CIS member states, increasing cooperation in the information sphere by states pursuing a constructive policy towards Russia.


V. Regional tracks of the foreign policy of the Russian Federation

Near Abroad

49. The most important for the security, stability, territorial integrity and social and economic development of Russia, strengthening its position as one of the influential sovereign centres of world development and civilization is to ensure sustainable long-term good-neighbourly relations and to combine the strengths in various fields with the CIS member states, which are connected with Russia by centuries-old traditions of joint statehood, deep interdependence in various fields, a common language and close cultures. With the purpose of further transformation of the near abroad into a zone of peace, good neighbourliness, sustainable development and prosperity, the Russian Federation intends to give priority to:

1) preventing and resolving armed conflicts, improving inter-state relations, and ensuring stability in the near abroad, including preventing the instigation of "colour revolutions" and other attempts to interfere in the internal affairs of Russia's allies and partners;

2) ensuring guaranteed protection of Russia, its allies and partners under any military and political scenario in the world, strengthening the system of regional security based on the principle of indivisibility of security and Russia's key role in maintaining and strengthening regional security, the complementarity of the Union State, the CSTO and other formats of interaction between Russia and its allies and partners in the defence and security sphere;

3) countering deployment or reinforcement of military infrastructure of unfriendly states and other threats to Russia's security in the near abroad;

4)  deepening integration processes, which serve Russia's interests, and strategic cooperation with the Republic of Belarus, strengthening the mutually beneficial comprehensive cooperation system based on combined CIS and EAEU potentials, as well as developing additional multilateral formats, including a mechanism for interaction between Russia and the states of the Central Asian region;

5) establishing an integrated economic and political space in Eurasia in the long term;

6) preventing and countering unfriendly actions of foreign states and their alliances, which provoke disintegration processes in the near abroad and create obstacles to the exercise of the sovereign right of Russia's allies and partners to deepen their comprehensive cooperation with Russia;

7) unleashing the economic potential of good-neighbourliness, primarily with the EAEU member states and states interested in developing economic relations with Russia in order to form a broader integration contour in Eurasia;

8) comprehensively supporting the Republic of Abkhazia and the Republic of South Ossetia, promoting the voluntary choice, based on international law, of the peoples of these states in favor of a deeper integration with Russia;

9) strengthening cooperation in the Caspian Sea zone, proceeding from the premise that the solution of all issues relating to this region falls within the exclusive competence of the five Caspian states.

The Arctic

50. Russia is seeking to preserve peace and stability, enhance environmental sustainability, reduce threats to national security in the Arctic, create favourable international conditions for the social and economic development of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation (including to protect the original habitat and traditional livelihood of the indigenous people living there), as well as to advance the Northern Sea Route as a competitive national transport corridor making possible its international use for transportations between Europe and Asia. In pursuing these aims, the Russian Federation is going to focus on:

1) peacefully resolving international issues, related to the Arctic, proceeding from the premise of the special responsibility of the Arctic states for the sustainable development of the region and the sufficiency of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea dated 10 December 1982 for regulating interstate relations in the Arctic Ocean (including protecting the marine environment and delimitating maritime areas);

[Here Russia is referring to articles 7, 8, 9, and 10 of the United Nations Convention on Law of the Sea which discuss the limits of the territorial sea and how it is measured, and what exactly are 'inland waters'. Article 10 discusses the 'historic' bays, which may have a different measure. In any event, all parties to the convention had the ability to iron out interpretations before the 1982 convention was finalised, and all parties have access to a dispute mechanism. The United States is not a party to the law of the Sea, and has no say in how boundaries are determined.

When Russia mentions 'special responsibility of Arctic States', it is referring to articles 234, 235 and 236 of the convention, which are worth quoting in their entirety:
234 -Coastal States have the right to adopt and enforce non-discriminatory laws and regulations for the prevention, reduction and control of marine pollution from vessels in ice-covered areas within the limits of the exclusive economic zone, where particularly severe climatic conditions and the presence of ice covering such areas for most of the year create obstructions or exceptional hazards to navigation, and pollution of the marine environment could cause major harm to or irreversible disturbance of the ecological balance. Such laws and regulations shall have due regard to navigation and the protection and preservation of the marine environment based on the best available scientific evidence.

235 - 1. States are responsible for the fulfilment of their international obligations concerning the protection and preservation of the marine environment. They shall be liable in accordance with international law.
2. States shall ensure that recourse is available in accordance with their legal systems for prompt and adequate compensation or other relief in respect of damage caused by pollution of the marine environment by natural or juridical persons under their jurisdiction.
3. With the objective of assuring prompt and adequate compensation in respect of all damage caused by pollution of the marine environment, States shall cooperate in the implementation of existing international law and the further development of international law relating to responsibility and liability for the assessment of and compensation for damage and the settlement of related disputes, as well as, where appropriate, development of criteria and procedures for payment of adequate compensation, such as compulsory insurance or compensation funds.

236 - Sovereign immunity - The provisions of this Convention regarding the protection and preservation of the marine environment do not apply to any warship, naval auxiliary, other vessels or aircraft owned or operated by a State and used, for the time being, only on government non-commercial service.

However, each State shall ensure, by the adoption of appropriate measures not impairing operations or operational capabilities of such vessels or aircraft owned or operated by it, that such vessels or aircraft act in a manner consistent, so far as is reasonable and practicable, with this Convention.

Once again, the United States is not a party to the convention. It will be interesting to see what 'permissions' they allow themselves in this fragile environment, especially as Russia reserved itself from some elements of the Convention that talk about military activity.

"...when ratifying the Convention on the Law of the Sea, it [the Russian Federation] does not accept the procedures provided for in Section 2 of Part XV, which lead to binding decisions on disputes regarding military activities, including naval activities by government vessels."
Maria Zakharova, Foreign Ministry Spokeswoman 14 October 2021

2) counteracting the unfriendly states' policy aimed at militarization of the region and limiting Russia's ability to exercise its sovereign rights in the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation;

3) ensuring the unalterability of the historically established international legal regime of the inland maritime waters of the Russian Federation;

4) establishing a mutually beneficial cooperation with the non Arctic states pursuing a constructive policy toward Russia and interested in international activities in the Arctic, including developing infrastructure of the Northern Sea Route.

Eurasian continent

The People's Republic of China, the Republic of India

51. A comprehensive deepening of ties and enhancement of coordination with friendly sovereign global centres of power and development, which are located on the Eurasian continent and committed to approaches which coincide in principle with the Russian approaches to a future world order and solutions for key problems of the world politics, is particularly important for achieving strategic goals and major objectives of the foreign policy of the Russian Federation.

52. Russia aims at further strengthening the comprehensive partnership and the strategic cooperation with the People's Republic of China and focuses on the development of a mutually beneficial cooperation in all areas, provision of mutual assistance, and enhancement of coordination in the international arena to ensure security, stability and sustainable development at the global and regional levels, both in Eurasia and in other parts of the world.

53. Russia will continue to build up a particularly privileged strategic partnership with the Republic of India with a view to enhance and expand cooperation in all areas on a mutually beneficial basis and place special emphasis on increasing the volume of bilateral trade, strengthening investment and technological ties, and ensuring their resistance to destructive actions of unfriendly states and their alliances.

54. Russia seeks to transform Eurasia into a continental common space of peace, stability, mutual trust, development and prosperity. Achieving this goal implies:

1) comprehensive strengthening of the SCO's potential and role in ensuring security in Eurasia and promoting its sustainable development by enhancing the Organization's activities in the light of current geopolitical realities;

2) establishment of the broad Greater Eurasian Partnership integration contour by combining the potential of all the states, regional organizations and Eurasian associations, based on the EAEU, the SCO and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) as well as the conjunction of the EAEU development plans and the Chinese initiative "One Belt One Road" while preserving the possibility for all the interested states and multilateral associations of the Eurasian continent to participate in this partnership and – as a result – establishment of a network of partner organizations in Eurasia;

3) strengthening of the economic and transport interconnectivity in Eurasia, including through the modernization and increased capacity of the Baikal-Amur Mainline and the Trans-Siberian railway; the rapid launch of the International North – South Transport Corridor; improvement of infrastructure of the Western Europe – Western China International Transit Corridor, the Caspian and the Black Sea regions, and the Northern Sea Route; creation of development zones and economic corridors in Eurasia, including the China – Mongolia – Russia economic corridor, as well as increased regional cooperation in digital development and establishment of an energy partnership.

4) comprehensive settlement in Afghanistan, assistance in building it as a sovereign, peaceful and neutral State with stable economy and political system which meets the interests of all the ethnic groups living there and opens up prospects for integrating Afghanistan into the Eurasian space for cooperation.

The Asia-Pacific region

55. Given the dynamically growing multifaceted potential of the Asia-Pacific region, the Russian Federation is going to focus on:

1) increasing economic, security, humanitarian and other cooperation with the states of the region and the ASEAN member states;

2) establishing a comprehensive, open, indivisible, transparent, multilateral and equitable architecture of security and mutually beneficial cooperation in the region based on a collective and non-aligned approaches as well as unleashing the region's potential aiming at the establishment of a Great Eurasian Partnership;

3) promoting constructive non-politicized dialog and interstate cooperation in various areas, including with the help of opportunities provided by the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum;

4) countering attempts to undermine the regional system of multilateral security and development alliances on the basis of ASEAN, which rests upon the principles of consensus and equality of its participants;

5) developing a broad international cooperation to counter policies aimed at drawing dividing lines in the region.

The Islamic world

56. The states of friendly Islamic civilization, which has great prospects for establishing itself as an independent centre of world development within a polycentric world, are increasingly in demand and more reliable partners of Russia in ensuring security and stability as well as in solving economic problems at the global and regional levels. Russia seeks to strengthen the comprehensive mutually beneficial cooperation with the Member States of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation, respecting their social and political systems and traditional spiritual and moral values. In pursuing these aims, the Russian Federation is going to focus on:

1) developing the full-scale and trustful cooperation with the Islamic Republic of Iran, providing comprehensive support for the Syrian Arab Republic, and deepening the multifaceted mutually beneficial partnerships with the Republic of Turkey, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the Arab Republic of Egypt and the other Member States of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation, given the extent of their sovereignty and constructiveness of their policy toward the Russian Federation;

2) establishing a sustainable comprehensive regional security and cooperation architecture in the Middle East and North Africa, based on combining the capacities of all the states and interstate alliances of the regions, including the League of Arab States and the Gulf Cooperation Council. Russia intends to actively cooperate with all the interested states and interstate associations in order to implement the Russia's Collective Security Concept for the Persian Gulf Region, viewing the implementation of this initiative as an important step toward a sustainable and comprehensive normalization of the situation in the Middle East;

3) promoting interfaith and intercultural dialog and understanding, consolidating efforts to protect traditional spiritual and moral values, and combating Islamophobia, including via the Organization of Islamic Cooperation;

["Russian diplomacy prioritises the promotion of interfaith and intercultural dialogue and mutual understanding, as well as the consolidation of our efforts to stand up for the traditional spiritual and moral values shared by all world religions, and also combatting Islamophobia, including within the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and the OSCE. This principled approach has been set forth in the Foreign Policy Concept of the Russian Federation as approved by President Vladimir Putin in late March 2023."
Sergey Lavrov 18 May 2023
The Russian Federation has a large, and growing, Muslim population. The high birth rate in Muslim regions and low birth rate in Christian Orthodox regions has meant Muslims, who made up about 12% of Russia's population 2017, are now on track to make up about 30% of Russia's population by 2034. Naturally, given history, the government is very determined to promote religious and cultural tolerance and universal moral values (human rights). In addition, Russia is increasing its economic ties to the Muslim world, in the Middle East, and in Africa.]

4) reconciling differences and normalizing relations among the Member States of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation, as well as between these states and their neighbours (primarily the Islamic Republic of Iran and the Arab countries, the Syrian Arab Republic and its neighbours, the Arab countries and the State of Israel), including within the efforts aimed at a comprehensive and lasting solution to the Palestinian question;

[The aggression against Syria was funded by Saudis, Qataris, and the USA. Saudi actors imported weapons from the Balkans and transited them to terrorists trying to overthrow the legitimate government. Turkey funneled fanatical jihadi terrorists into Syria from all over the Middle East, North Africa, Russia's Chechen Republic, and muslim regions of China. Turkey seized adjacent grain-rich Syrian provinces and proceeded to 'Turkify' the occupied Syrian territory.

The UK, Israel and the EU supplied intel and propaganda services, assisted in fabricating chemical 'atrocities', helped destroy the integrity of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, and helped Kurdish Syrians to seize grain and oil rich northern Syria. All (except Israel) assisted in attacking Syria with cruise missiles on the false pretext of Syria's use of chemical weapons.

The Kurds wanted to create a 'homeland' for Kurds (even although their rights to their own language and culture are guaranteed under Syrian law). The terrorists, in contrast, wanted to establish a hard-line wahabbi religous government on Syria, which, while largely Sunni, is based on civil governance in the interests of all faiths and ethical systems. The USA happily looked on as terrorists took over large parts of Syria, and did nothing to stop the terrorists stealing oil, destroying archaeological sites of immense importance, stealing and exporting antquities. Only when Russia finally intervened and bombed the hundreds of tankers running oil to Turkey did USA finally lift a finger to stop 'their' terrorists.

"The war in Syria, by the way, has lasted already longer than WWI and longer than from the invasion of Hitler into the Soviet Union till the end of the WWII. And this damned, confusing and horrible war costs hundreds and thousands of human lives, produces millions of refugees and damages the trust between states that do not even share common borders with Syria....

...the conflict between Israel and Palestine, which to me seems to be further away from resolution than ever. I recently assisted at the funeral of Shimon Peres in Jerusalem. And even the eulogies referenced that Shimon Peres was convinced of the necessity of peace with the Palestinians, since without the courage for peace, so Shimon often said Israel cannot safely exist.

The current Israeli government focuses on security and they say, without security there can be no peace. However, security cannot take precedence over peace, both are needed, simultaneous and full."
Vladimir Putin 27 October 2016 ]

5) helping resolve and overcome consequences of armed conflicts in the Middle East, North Africa, South, Southeast Asia and other regions where Member States of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation are located;

6) unleashing the economic potential of the Member States of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation with a view to establishing the Greater Eurasian Partnership.

["To put it briefly, the emergence of what we call a polycentric world order is an objective process consisting of the emergence of new centres of economic and financial power, enhancing their political leverage along the way. This is an organic process, as exemplified by the BRICS phenomenon....the emergence of polycentric trends gave birth to a new era with the ascendance of China and India, which are now economic powerhouses, and of course Russia, when it stopped being embarrassed by its uniqueness, roots and cultural and civilisational identity. All these processes were met with harsh resentment...the emergence of a polycentric, democratic and a more just world order is inevitable, just as the resistance by old powers to these new trends in global politics. This is life. One thing that brings some comfort in this situation is that the majority is with those who support collective approaches in international affairs. The majority shares our view about the need for mutual respect."
Sergey Lavrov 30 July 2018

The difference between a 'polycentric' world and a 'multipolar' world is lost on me. Whatever the case, Mr. Lavrov a few years ago remarked that he thought it might take as long as 25 years for a multipolar world to emerge. Thanks to Russian planning to counter western aggression a multipolar world is being born much sooner.]


57. Russia stands in solidarity with the African states in their desire for a more equitable polycentric world and elimination of social and economic inequality, which is growing due to the sophisticated neo-colonial policies of some developed states towards Africa. The Russian Federation intends to support further the establishment of Africa as a distinctive and influential centre of world development, giving priority to:

1) supporting the sovereignty and independence of interested African states, including through security assistance, inter alia food and energy security, as well as military and military-technical cooperation;

2) assistance in resolving and overcoming the consequences of armed conflicts in Africa, especially inter-ethnic and ethnic ones, advocating the leading role of African states in these efforts, based on the principle "African problems – African solution";

3) strengthening and deepening Russian-African cooperation in various spheres on a bilateral and multilateral basis, primarily within the framework of the African Union and the Russia-Africa Partnership Forum;

4) increasing trade and investment with African states and African integration structures (primarily the African Continental Free Trade Area, the African Export-Import Bank and other leading subregional organizations), including through the EAEU;

5) promoting and developing links in the humanitarian sphere, including scientific cooperation, training of national personnel, strengthening health systems, providing other assistance, promoting intercultural dialogue, protecting traditional spiritual and moral values, and the right to freedom of religion.

Latin America and the Caribbean

58. Given the progressive strengthening of the sovereignty and multifaceted potential of Latin American and Caribbean states, the Russian Federation intends to develop relations with them on a pragmatic, de ideologized and mutually beneficial basis, giving priority attention to:

1) supporting interested Latin American states under pressure from the United States and its allies in securing sovereignty and independence, including through the promotion and expansion of security, military and military-technical cooperation;

2) strengthening friendship, mutual understanding and deepening multifaceted mutually beneficial partnership with the Federative Republic of Brazil, the Republic of Cuba, the Republic of Nicaragua, the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, developing relations with other Latin American states, taking into account the degree of independence and constructiveness of their policy towards the Russian Federation;

3) increasing mutual trade and investment with Latin American and Caribbean States, including through cooperation with the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States, the Common Market of the South. The Central American Integration System, the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of the Americas, the Pacific Alliance, and the Caribbean Community;

4) expanding cultural, scientific, educational, sports, tourism and other humanitarian ties with the states of the region.

European region

59. Most European states pursue an aggressive policy toward Russia aimed at creating threats to the security and sovereignty of the Russian Federation, gaining unilateral economic advantages, undermining domestic political stability and eroding traditional Russian spiritual and moral values, and creating obstacles to Russia's cooperation with allies and partners. In this connection, the Russian Federation intends to consistently defend its national interests by giving priority attention to:

1) reducing and neutralizing threats to security, territorial integrity, sovereignty, traditional spiritual and moral values, and socio-economic development of Russia, its allies and partners from unfriendly European states, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the European Union and the Council of Europe;

[How will Russia neutralise threats to its security, sovereignty and territorial integrity from these State entities? First comes deterrence, that is, making it obvious that any attack on Russia will meet with a 'military-technical response'. This could include anything from cyberattacks to cutting of internet and undersea power cables, destruction of gas pipelines and oil terminals through to targeted destruction of part or all of the armed forces of NATO and relevant European States.

"The EU countries and EU leaders are openly talking about the need to inflict a strategic defeat on Russia, as they put it. They are pumping the criminal Kiev regime full of weapons and ammunition, and are sending instructors and mercenaries to Ukraine...

We will respond to hostile steps in a tough manner if need be, guided by the national interests of Russia and the principle of reciprocity that is universally accepted in diplomatic practice."
Sergey Lavrov 4 April 2023

The reference to responding in a 'tough manner' probably means that EU instructors in Ukraine may be targeted in future. More likely, it means Russia might stop third party supply of Russian oil, further restrict Russian oil production, and end the export of Ukrainian grains to Europe.

How will it protect its 'spiritual and moral values? By censoring some parts of the internet and foreign NGO organisations, expelling foreign news media organisations that spread anti-Russian propaganda, and supporting its orthodox church missions in European countries.

Russia will protect its socio-economic development by developing foreign trade and trade partners who make sovereign decisions and will not permit interference by the west. It seems to me that Russia will actively promote regional commodity trade hubs at critical socio-geographic nodes - Venezuela, Brazil, Turkey, India, Egypt, United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Iran, Kazakhstan. China is already the world's largest and most effective trade hub.

Russia will probably reduce and neutralise these same threats to 'allies' and partners by sharing military technology, weapons sales, and perhaps military intelligence. In the case of Belarus, a Union State member, Russia will provide military training, equipment, weapons, and now nuclear weapons stationed in Belarus (although these are likely a card to be given away in some distant arms control treaty, or, in the less distant future, a Eurasian Security Treaty). The main deterrent force to maintain peace and stability is cooperative work against terrorism, and the Collective Security Treaty Organisation rapid reaction force when west sponsored coups are attempted.

"...this is the first case where the CSTO has used its peacemaking potential in practice to ensure the security, stability and integrity of one of its members. For us, not only the military but also and primarily the moral support of our CSTO partners is of principle importance. All CSTO member states acted as a united front and resolutely supported Kazakhstan’s request.

Now I would like to tell you about the current developments in our country and the events of the past few days. Having a full picture of these events, I can say with responsibility that all the events that have taken place since the beginning of this year are links in the same chain. They are part of a single destructive scenario that has been in preparation for a long time. Investigation will reveal whether these preparations were made over one, two or three years...Spontaneous rallies were used as a pretext for provoking civil unrest. Religious radicals, criminals, outright thugs, looters and petty hooligans filled the streets as if on cue. Socio-economic and socio-political demands were put on the back burner, they were forgotten. Next followed the hot phase, and armed fighters, who were biding their time, took over.

The main goal of these events became clear – to undermine the constitutional system, destroy governance institutions and seize power. It is obvious now that these armed activities were coordinated from a single centre, and the carefully planned operation entered its decisive phase.

Proof of this is provided by the simultaneous – I repeat, simultaneous – attacks on the buildings of regional governments, law enforcement agencies, pretrial detention centres, strategic facilities, banks, the TV tower and television channels. They seized airports, blocked motorways and railway lines and hindered the operation of ambulances and fire-fighters.

During attacks on military units and checkpoints, the thugs attempted to seize weapons and military equipment. Real fighting went on in Almaty and several other cities. For example, the attack on the Interior Ministry department in Almaty went on for two nights. The police repelled the attacks. Seven armourers’ shops were seized in Almaty alone. These attacks were staged by trained professionals, including snipers armed with special rifles.

The terrorists used special communication equipment and wore military and police uniforms. They cynically used the protesters as human shields. Using their five-fold superiority in terms of numbers, the thugs attacked our police and military personnel, beating them up with extreme brutality, decapitating two of them. There were barbarous attacks on hospitals.

Seeking to stretch the state’s resources, the masterminds organised their attack across a wide front. Their aggression was taking place across 11 regions simultaneously, but their main blow was directed at Almaty. As you know, this is the largest city in Kazakhstan, the country’s financial centre, which also serves as the main transport and communications hub. Losing control of this city would have paved the way to losing the densely populated southern part of the country and then the country in its entirety. Terrorists hoped to stretch thin the law enforcement agencies and then attack the capital of Kazakhstan. We have seen fighters converge on the President’s residence. In fact, this was a real war unleashed by terrorists against our state using various methods.

We had to take unprecedented measures in response. Kazakhstan’s military and law enforcement agencies have succeeded in mobilising themselves, rebuffing the attackers, and taking control of the situation. Unfortunately, this came at a very high cost: there were casualties in the military and law enforcement agencies, as well as among civilians, with 16 members of law enforcement and the military dead and over 1,300 wounded. Unfortunately, there were also civilian casualties, although we have yet to obtain the exact figures.

More than 1,270 businesses were affected across the country, with more than 100 shopping centres and banks looted. The police alone lost about 500 vehicles, either damaged or burnt. The physical damage has been huge, and a special government commission has been tasked with assessing it.

I can tell you in all certainty that terrorists, including foreign fighters, were directly involved in the aggression against Kazakhstan. It was not a coincidence that the criminals attacked morgues at night to collect and drive away with the corpses of their dead accomplices. They also took the corpses of fighters from the battlefield. We know what kind of international terrorists do this: this is how they cover up their tracks. It is obvious that they want to sow chaos in our country to seize power.

In keeping with the resolution of Kazakhstan’s Security Council and based on a comprehensive analysis carried out by the law enforcement agencies and special services, we designated these developments as a terrorist threat and an act of aggression. These developments reached a critical point when criminals took control of Almaty and nine regional capitals. This is when we declared a counter-terrorist operation.

Kazakhstan turned to the CSTO for assistance, which proved to be extremely timely. When the fighters learned that three cargo planes had arrived in the country’s capital, they gave up on their plan to seize the President’s residence. This enabled us to send more forces to Almaty and recapture the city from the hands of the terrorists..."
President of Kazakhstan Kassym-Jomart Tokayev 10 January 2022

2) creating conditions for the cessation of unfriendly actions by European states and their associations, for a complete rejection of the anti Russian course (including interference in Russia's internal affairs) by these states and their associations, and for their transition to a long-term policy of good-neighbourliness and mutually beneficial cooperation with Russia;

3) the formation of a new model of coexistence by European states to ensure the safe, sovereign and progressive development of Russia, its allies and partners, and durable peace in the European part of Eurasia, taking into account the potential of multilateral formats, including the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe.

60. Objective prerequisites for the formation of a new model of coexistence with European states are geographical proximity, historically developed deep cultural, humanitarian and economic ties of the peoples and states of the European part of Eurasia. The main factor complicating the normalization of relations between Russia and European states is the strategic course of the USA and their individual allies to draw and deepen dividing lines in the European region in order to weaken and undermine the competitiveness of the economies of Russia and European states, as well as to limit the sovereignty of European states and ensure US global domination.

61. The realization by the states of Europe that there is no alternative to peaceful coexistence and mutually beneficial equal cooperation with Russia, an increase in the level of their foreign policy independence and a transition to a policy of good neighbourliness with the Russian Federation will have a positive effect on the security and welfare of the European region and help European states take their proper place in the Greater Eurasian Partnership and in a multipolar world.

"Considering the tectonic shifts that are taking place in the process of the rise of a new world order, the Foreign Ministry of Russia is part of the effort to strengthen our national security and strategic stability as a whole. We will continue to work energetically in accordance with our competences and the goals set out in the Foreign Policy Concept. Our goal in the geopolitical context is comprehensive and provides for building a fair multipolar world based on the principle of equal and indivisible security......While firmly upholding our interests, we will work consistently to encourage these countries to see that there is no alternative to creating the foundations of a harmonious and safe existence for everyone in a polycentric world."
Director of the Foreign Ministry Department for Nonproliferation and Arms Control Vladimir Yermakov 25 April 2023

The U.S. and other Anglo-Saxon states

[I believe the Russia's Foreign Ministry  use of the term 'Anglo-Saxons' derives from a piece that Mark Twain wrote on September 7, 1906. The sentiment is below, and the full text can be accessed here. In other words it is a tart reposte to the inadequacies of USA and UK (primarily).
"At the banquet, last winter, of that organization which calls itself the Ends of the Earth Club, the chairman, a retired regular army officer of high grade, proclaimed in a loud voice, and with fervency,

We are of the Anglo-Saxon race, and when the Anglo-Saxon wants a thing he just takes it.

That utterance was applauded to the echo. There were perhaps seventy-five civilians present and twenty-five military and naval men. It took those people nearly two minutes to work off their stormy admiration of that great sentiment; and meanwhile the inspired prophet who had discharged it–from his liver, or his intestines, or his esophagus, or wherever he had bred it–stood there glowing and beaming and smiling, and issuing rays of happiness from every pore–rays that were so intense that they were visible...

The soldier man’s great utterance, interpreted by the expression which he put into it, meant, in plain English–

“The English and the Americans are thieves, highwaymen, pirates, and we are proud to be of the combination.”...

It was an amazing thing to see–that boyishly frank and honest and delighted outburst of enthusiasm over the soldier prophet’s mephitic remark. It looked suspiciously like a revelation–a secret feeling of the national heart surprised into expression and exposure by untoward accident; for it was a representative assemblage. All the chief mechanisms that constitute the machine which drives and vitalizes the national civilization were present–lawyers, bankers, merchants, manufacturers, journalists, politicians, soldiers, sailors–they were all there.

Apparently it was the United States in banquet assembled, and qualified to speak with authority for the nation and reveal its private morals to the public view...

We imported our imperialism from monarchical Europe; also our curious notions of patriotism–that is, if we have any principle of patriotism which any person can definitely and intelligibly define....but for us the European Food Trust might never have acquired the art of poisoning the world for cash; but for us her Insurance Trusts might never have found out the best way to work the widow and orphan for profit; but for us the long delayed resumption of Yellow Journalism in Europe might have been postponed for generations to come. Steadily, continuously, persistently, we are Americanizing Europe, and all in good time we shall get the job perfected."
Mark Twain 7 September 1906

Are the US and UK governments aware of this rapprochement? Of course. But they can never admit it.

62. Russia's course towards the U.S. has a combined character, taking into account the role of this state as one of the influential sovereign centres of world development and at the same time the main inspirer, organizer and executor of the aggressive anti-Russian policy of the collective West, the source of major risks to the security of the Russian Federation, international peace, a balanced, equitable and progressive development of humanity.

["In the current circumstances, it is impossible to hold any meaningful talks with the United States or the West as a whole. Poisoned with the venom of pseudo-exceptionalism, Washington is not ready for an equal dialogue. The United States is using every opportunity to maintain its increasingly shaky position of “global hegemon” and is therefore resolved to aggravate confrontation with Russia and other states which do not accept the patently objectionable ideas of Pax Americana."
Director of the Foreign Ministry Department for Nonproliferation and Arms Control Vladimir Yermakov 25 April 2023

The US aggressive anti-Russian policy (consonant with racism, in my opinion) manifests not only in proxy war on Russia, an illegal unilateral blocking of Russian foreign trade, but also in the diplomatic, cultural and social spheres.

The US embraces a form of petty apartheid, trying to split Russia from every form of international interaction as possible.

The USA has a destroyed diplomatic relations with Russia, from closing down Russian consulate facilities in USA, seizing the ambassadorial residence, searching Russian consular buildings prior to placing their own keypad lock on the door, savagely cutting Russian diplomats allowed to work in USA, limiting Russian diplomatic visa terms to absurdly short terms, preventing Russia from paying for costs of diplomats in USA, to prohibiting the entry of all high level Russian officials to Russia. Of course, the USA, as host country of the UN, is obliged to provide visas for Russian delegations to the UN. The US routinely delays the visas to the very last possible moment, and refuse visas for lower level Russian participants in UN activities.

Of course, Russia has reciprocally barred equivalent top US officials in response - President Biden, Secretary of State, head of the CIA, head of the Military, and so forth.

But Russians do not lock closed doors. They will temporarily lift blocks on these people if it is in Russia's national interests. Russia is willing to listen to what these people have to say, as long as it is respectful and constructive.
"This step, taken as a response measure, is the inevitable result of the extreme Russophobic policy of the current US Administration, which, in a desperate attempt to maintain American hegemony, has abandoned any sense of decorum and placed its bets on the head-on containment of Russia.

However, we do not oppose maintaining official ties when it is in our national interests, and, if necessary, we will address the issues arising from the status of the black-listed individuals in order to organise high-level contacts."
Sergey Lavrov 15 March 2022 ]

63. The Russian Federation is interested in maintaining strategic parity, peaceful coexistence with the United States, and the establishment of a balance of interests between Russia and the United States, taking into account their status as major nuclear powers and special responsibility for strategic stability and international security in general.
The prospects of forming such a model of U.S.-Russian relations depend on the extent to which the United States is ready to abandon its policy of power-domination
revise its anti-Russian course in favour of interaction with Russia on the basis of the principles of sovereign equality, mutual benefit, and respect for each other's interests.
[There is nothing new in these conditions for relations with USA. They have been repeated over and over again, in one form or the other in recent years - and continue to be repeated.
"Unfortunately, relations between Russia and the United States, which directly affect global security and stability, are going through a deep crisis. It is rooted in fundamentally different approaches to the formation of the modern world order.

Madam Ambassador, I do not wish to upset the positive atmosphere of the ceremony for presenting the letters of credence and I know that you probably won’t share my opinion, but I must say that the use by the US of such foreign policy tools as support for the so-called colour revolutions, including support for the state coup in Ukraine in 2014, ultimately led to the current crisis in Ukraine and exacerbated the deterioration of Russia-US relations.

But we have always supported the development of Russia-US relations exclusively on the principles of equality, mutual respect for each other’s sovereignty and interests, and non-interference in internal affairs. We will continue following these principles in the future as well."
Vladimir Putin, April 5 2023

Russia wants to maintain "strategic parity" with the US, where, at the moment, 'strategic' refers to nuclear weapons. There are two elements - first, Russia and the US should have the same nuclear destructive power and monitor each others arsenals to ensure neither side cheats. The US has unilaterally destroyed all nuclear weapons treaties except the the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty. But as the US has launched a hybrid war of aggression (a blockade and a proxy army) against Russia, and modernised Ukrainian drones to attack one of Russia's nuclear weapons deployment bases, Russia has as a consequence suspended (not withdrawn) it's participation in the treaty until the US stops it's attack and meets certain conditions.

US anti-missile complexes in Poland and elsewhere are deployed to shoot down Russian strategic weapons launched by Russia in response to a US 'first strike'.  Why does Russia feel safe in taking this step, when Russia has no anti missile batteries to shoot down US nuclear weapons sitting close to the US border? Because Russia has unstoppable non-nuclear hypersonic missiles on submarines within minutes of the US coast. Their impact power is similar to a small nuclear explosion. A form of parity has been restored, at least for the moment.

Russia has always wanted "peaceful coexistence" with USA, and under the current President, bent itself out of shape to try to achieve that.

"I agree that we must at least try to break out of this vicious circle [with the USA]. But it was not us who began to draw this circle. On the contrary, we opened ourselves completely in the mid-1990s and we expected it would be an equal dialogue, that our interests would be reckoned with, that we would be able to talks to each other and meet each other halfway...It is inadmissible to seek to achieve one’s goals unilaterally and at any cost....Please don’t provoke us to actively defend our interests. Let us try to reach agreement on various matters.

I would like to hope that we will have other relations with the new administration, the relations of partnership and reckoning with each other’s interests..."
Vladimir Putin 27 October 2016

The USA pretended it was interested, but when it found it couldn't acquire most of Russia's strategic resources, it blew the dust off it's long standing plan to destroy the Russian State and place a US puppet in control. Russia wants peaceful cooexistence with the USA, but USA wants to endlessly provoke and attack the Russian Federation, in violation of Article 1 (1) of the United Nations Charter requiring members "To maintain international peace and security". The USA's aggressive policy to Russia is also in breach of the USA obligation under UN Charter Article 1 (2) to "To develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples, and to take other appropriate measures to strengthen universal peace".

Russia rejects the USA concept of 'balance of power' in international relations, as it is based on confrontation and 'might makes right'. This is especially important because both countries are nuclear armed, and there is a great danger of miscalculation and the termination of life on earth in a nuclear conflagration. Such a scenario hardly advances either parties desire for their citizens to enjoy peaceful and secure lives.

The "balance of interest" concept that Russia insists upon is, I suspect, based on agreeing cooperatively to settle irritations in relationships through dialogue, and when positions can't be reconciled, even by compromise, then to clearly advise the other side of what consequences will follow (economic, political, and as a last resort military) where the disagreeing side impinges on the legitimate, legal rights of the dialogue partner.

"If we've reached agreement on something, it should be fulfilled. At any rate, there's no shifting blame to others or accusing us of all the imaginable sins because that's simply improper."

We’re still exercising restraint and refraining from similarly loutish answers to our partners but everything has limits and we can respond one day"
Vladimir Putin 27 October 2016

It is pointless to threaten consequences if they cannot be carried out. Even if they can be carried out, it is pointless to outline consequences when the response does more harm to the side choosing the road of conflict than to the side wanting negotiation. Therefore, even within the 'balance of interests' concept, there is an element of power imposition for the side that has greater potential.]

64. The Russian Federation intends to build relations with other Anglo-Saxon states depending on the degree of their willingness to abandon their unfriendly course toward Russia and to respect its legitimate interests.

65.  Russia is interested in preserving Antarctica as a demilitarized space of peace, stability and cooperation, maintaining environmental sustainability and expanding its presence in the region. For these purposes, the Russian Federation intends to give priority attention to preservation, effective implementation and progressive development of the Antarctic Treaty System of December 1, 1959.


VI. Formation and implementation of foreign policy of the Russian Federation

66. The President of the Russian Federation, acting in accordance with the Constitution of the Russian Federation and federal laws, defines the main lines of the foreign policy, directs the countries foreign policy and, as the head of State, represents the Russian Federation in international relations.

67. The Council of the Federation of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation and the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation, within the scope of their authority, shape the legislative framework for the foreign policy and implementation of international obligations of the Russian Federation, as well as contribute to the fulfilment of the tasks of parliamentary diplomacy.

68. The Government of the Russian Federation takes measures to implement foreign policy and international cooperation.

69. The State Council of the Russian Federation participates in the development of strategic tasks and goals of the foreign policy, assists the President of the Russian Federation in determining main directions of the foreign policy.

70. The Security Council of the Russian Federation defines main directions of the foreign and military policy, forecasts, identifies, analyses and assesses threats to Russia's national security, develops measures to neutralize them, prepares proposals for the President of the Russian Federation regarding the adoption of special economic measures with a view to ensuring national security, examines issues of international cooperation related to maintaining security, coordinates efforts by federal executive bodies and executive bodies of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation to implement decisions adopted by the President of the Russian Federation with a view to ensuring national interests and national security, protecting the sovereignty of the Russian Federation, its independence and state integrity, preventing external threats to national security.

[The current State bodies involved in the current Security Council are:
Prime Minister, Federation Council Speaker, State Duma Speaker, Deputy Chairman of the Security Council, Chief of Staff of the Presidential Executive Office, Security Council Secretary, Interior Minister, Foreign Minister, Defence Minister, Director of the Federal Security Service, Director of the Foreign Intelligence Service, and Special Presidential Representative for Environmental Protection, Ecology and Transport. The list may not be complete, it is taken from those attending a Security Council Meeting to discuss the newly released Foreign Policy Concept.]

71. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation develops a general strategy of the foreign policy of the Russian Federation and presents relevant proposals to the President of the Russian Federation, implements the foreign policy course, coordinates the activities of federal executive bodies in the area of international relations and international cooperation, and coordinates international relations of the subjects of the Russian Federation.

72. The Federal Agency for the Commonwealth of Independent States Affairs, Compatriots Living Abroad, and International Humanitarian Cooperation assists the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation in pursuing a uniform foreign policy line in terms of coordinating and implementing programmes on international humanitarian cooperation, as well as in the implementation of state policy in the field of international development assistance at the bilateral level.

73. Other federal executive bodies carry out international activities in accordance with their powers, the principle of foreign policy integrity and in coordination with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation.

74. The constituent entities of the Russian Federation engage in international and foreign economic contacts in accordance with their powers and in coordination with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, taking into account the important role of inter-regional and trans-border cooperation in the development of relations between the Russian Federation and foreign states.

[The Constituent entities are republics, regions (Oblasts), autonomous region, territories, autonomous areas, and autonomous cities of Federal importance according to Wikipedia. They are top level political entities in the Russian Federation, have their own Parliaments and governing heads, and have varying degrees of autonomy.]

75. When preparing and implementing foreign policy decisions, the federal executive bodies work with the chambers of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation, Russian political parties, the Civic Chamber of the Russian Federation, non-profit organizations, expert and academic community, cultural and humanitarian associations, the Russian Orthodox Church and other traditional Russian religious associations, business circles and mass media, contributing to their participation in international cooperation.

The broad involvement of constructive social forces in the foreign policy process promotes national consensus on foreign policy, assists in its implementation, and plays an important role in terms of more effective resolution of a wide range of issues on the international agenda.

[This canvassing of opinion prior to and during foreign policy decisions seems highly desirable, and stands in contrast to the west, where decisions are made for party political reasons, or to benefit the arms industry - who may be donors to politicians - with little informed public debate.  Of course 'constructive social fofrces' is open to labelling and close-down of arguments that discomfort the government.

The Duma (lower house) and the Federation Council (upper house) are the two chambers of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation. The federal executive bodies probably mainly refers to the State Council of the Russian Federation. The State Council helps formulate priorities and directions in foreign policy, as well as in domestic policy. It usually includes regional governors, speakers of the upper and lower house, Presidential representative, and heads of the Republics. The President's Security Council is heavily involved.]

76. Extra-budgetary resources raised on a voluntary basis through public-private partnership can be used to finance foreign policy activities.

[[That's a curious construct. I wonder what if it refers to the Foundation for National Values, a private-public funded 'think tank' set up by Maxim Shugalei. It operates internationally (except where it is 'sanctioned', doing surveys on national sentiment on various issues in a variety of countries. It seems to be modeled on similar western private-public Non Governmental Organisations and so-called 'think-tanks'.]]

I wrote this is the beginnings of an index to the document for my own convenience. I may or may not expand it over time.


Africa, foreign policy towards

Anglo-Saxon, meaning explained

Anti-missile system, USA, in Europe, threat to Russia, 2007

Armed forces, use of

Arctic, domestic and foreign policy

Balance of powers, Russia-USA, destruction of, 2007 warning

Brazil, foreign policy towards

Concept documents legal base 

Characteristics of Russian foreign policy

China, foreign policy towards

Colonisers, chief principle of

Conventional Armed Forces in Europe, Treaty, 1999 

CSTO, peacekeeping

Cuba, foreign policy towards

Definition of a 'Foreign Policy Concept'

Egypt, foreign relations towards

Equitable system of international relations

Eurasia, zone of peace, transformation

European States, aggression, response

European States, coexistence, Russia's new model

Foreign policy legal and moral base 

Foreign agents, Non Governmental Organisations (NGOs), 2007 

India, foreign policy towards

Iran, foreign policy towards

Islamic World, foreign policy towards

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, tasks

Monetary and Financial System

Multipolar international relations system; base principles, sovereign equality of states, rejection of hegemony, non-interference, rule of international law, uniform application of international law, indivisibility of security, non-imposition on other countries by all states of their models of development, ideology and values, morality based on common religous or secular systems of ethical behaviour, responsible leadership  by 'leading' nations, sovereignty in decisions on peace and security

Multipolar international relations, Russian Foreign Ministry priority tasks;

Munich Security Conference, 2007, speech, basis of Russian Foreign Policy outlined

NATO expansion, 2007 

Nicaragua, foreign policy towards

Nuclear deterrence, Russian, neutralised, by USA, anti-missile system, 2007 warning

President defines the basic guideline to be used to develop Russian foreign policy

Rules-based world order

Russia's attitude to other states determined by their attitude to Russia - constructive, neutral, unfriendly

Russia relations with interstate organisations BRICS, SCO, RIC, EAEU, CIS 

Russia's place in the world determined by power potential

Russia thousand year history 2007, 2023

Sanctions, International

Sanctions, economic or political, Russia's response

Saudi Arabia, foreign relations towards

Security Council of the Russian Federation, tasks

Security, global, architecture of, change urgently needed, 2007  

Security, principle of, indivisible (also 2007)

Security, principle of, indivisible, Asia Pacific

Security, principle of, reciprocity

Security, Strategic Arms Control Agreement, possibility of

Security, Strategic Arms Control Agreement (START), inclusion of France and Germany impossible

Syria, foreign policy towards

The Arctic, domestic and foreign policy

Turkiye, foreign policy towards

Unfriendly States; Russia's attitude to;

Unfriendly actions, West; Russia's response;

UN Charter, violation, coercive measures, illegal

UN role to be restored;

UK, foreign policy towards

USA, foreign policy towards; peaceful coexistence with; strategic parity with; balance of interests between;

USA, anti missile system, threat to Russia, 2007

USA foreign policy to Russia, confrontation

USA, foreign policy to Russia creates acute threat of nuclear destruction

USA, Strategy Arms Control Agreement, possibility of

Venezuela, foreign policy towards

World development, historic, colonial-based 

World order, a fair and equitable system 

Index of articles on security