A fruit of the Andes, in Chile the fruit is called
lucuma, and the tree is called lucumo. In Ecuador, the tree
is called lugma. The native habitat of this tree is the
high Andean valleys of Peru, Chile, and Ecuador. It has been
used for at least 2,000 years, pre-dating even the use by
the Incas. Historically,
the trees have provided food in times of shortage of
other crops, so can be seen as' insurance' against crop
failure. It has only ever been used to any
extent in South America, but there is increasing interest in
the fruit as a natural ingredient. Villages in Ecuador and
Peru have traditionally had one or more trees by houses or
in the vicinity of the settlement, but it is not common in
the marketplace. Traditional use has been as chicken feed or
as baby food.. This may reflect the characteristics of
the local type, which is much less acceptable for fresh
eating than Chilean types. Chilean fruit is sweeter, and has
a more intense flavor, and as a result the fruit is more
popular and more widely grown. The availability of
industrially processed pulp and powder has seen its use
expand to ice cream (the predominant use), yoghurt, milk
shakes, cakes, biscuits, baby food, liqueurs, and so on. It
seems quite versatile as a food ingredient.
Peru is the main producer for the dried pulp market, with
600 hectares in lucuma orchards as at 1999, and more
plantings projected. Much is consumed domestically (400
metric tonnes were sold in Peru alone in 2012).
However, montane 'informal' plantings are not counted, so
production as at 2002 was estimated at vastly more 16,000
tonnes of fresh fruit in Peru alone (given 8 tonnes per
In 2012, 250 metric tonnes of the pulp was exported from
Peru, most of it to Chile, but such is the interest that
export tonnage is expected to jump to around 500 tonnes in
2013. There are now around 200 hectares of lucuma orchard in
Peru producing exclusively for the lucuma export market. The
flour is also in big demand internationally, but it takes
more fruit to make a kilo of flour than it does of pulp, and
production is relatively limited. About 20 metric tonnes of
flour was exported from Peru in 2012. A small amount of
fresh fruit are exported, almost all of it to France.
Various other countries are investigating lucuma as a crop,
including New Zealand, according to the Peruvian reference
below . In the case of New Zealand this is no longer
true, as Hort+Research (the former Department of Scientific
and Industrial Research) abandoned minor crops many years
ago, and most of the carefully selected germplasm has
History in New Zealand
Stuart Dawes, subtropical pomologist at the DSIR introduced
seed from carefully selected trees in Ecuador, Chile and
Peru in 1973. I believe that most, if not all, seedlings
were fruiting by 1984, at least. Seed was also introduced by
Dick Endt subsequent to him seeing trees growing in Ecuador
in 1977. This seed came from both Ecuador and Chile. The
seedlings at the LandsEndt orchard were planted as a
hedgerow for later selection of better types. They started
fruiting in the early 1980's . The seedlings are now
(2013) fruiting well. although, as expected in a hedgerow
situation, they are now rather tall. Scionwood from 3
Chilean cultivars ('Vergata', 'Merced'
and 'San Patricio') were successfully established by the
.Currently, it is not
anticipated that further work will be done on any of these
trees. [Dick Endt, pers. comm
Stuart Dawes also introduced scionwood of named varieties
and improved selections in 1980, as part of a co-operative
plant exchange with South American countries. These
cultivars were bulked up at Tharfield Nurseries in Tauranga
for planting out in field trials. In total, 300 grafted
trees were planted out . .The fruiting selected seedlings
and cultivars growing at the Pukekohe Research Station were
ultimately bulldozed. Presumably if plants were established
at the Te Puke and Kerikeri Research Stations they, too,
would have been bulldozed. Some plants might have been
distributed to co-operating orchardists for mini-trials
under the 'new crops' scheme of the government of the day,
but if they were, they have dropped out of sight (although
there may possibly be a planting still in existence in
Northland, but whether of seedlings or named cultivars is
[B. King pers. comm 2014]).
Stuart Dawes sent grafted plants of
the best cultivars to the Austen Brothers Exotica nursery in
Kaitaia in the 1980s. The most important cultivar was
considered to be a very large fruited type which but needed
a warmer climate to fruit. (Some scionwood of this cultivar
(whose name is now lost) was given to Auckland plant
enthusiast Bernard King, and two grafted plants from this
accession are still extant. Ironically, the plant at the
Austen Brothers Nursery subsequently died. A plant is
currently being propagated in Auckland to replace it.) [B.
King pers. comm 2014]
When the DSIR abandoned
minor subtropical crops, the contracting nursery (Tharfield
Nurseries) on-sold either part of, or all the lucuma
cultivar grafted plants (70 plants) to Lyndale Nurseries. The
plants were not a priority for the nursery, and ultimately
it was arranged for the trees to be planted at Shelly Beach
Farms, north of Helensville. Unfortunately, feral deer
jumped the fence around the planting and ate the trees to
the ground. Fortunately,
George Sinnock, a member of the New Zealand Tree Crops
Association in Auckland, rescued scionwood of two
Peruvian cultivars, 'Montalban' and 'La Molina'
when the Pukekohe trees were bulldozed.[B.
King pers. comm 2014
The few remaining named cultivars are
currently unobtainable, although some plants of one
cultivar may be available in future [B.
King pers. comm 2014].
There is a cryptic note in a 1997 compilation listing some
of the known plant imports of New Zealand Tree Crops
Association listing "11 selections
from various places by Gardner". Phil and Georgie Gardner
imported many plants through their quarantine facility in
the Bay of Islands, but it is unknown whether these 11
selections were cultivars imported from overseas, or
propagation of DSIR cultivars imported in the 1980's.
It is a matter of great regret that the carefully selected
cultivars and seed acquired at great expense by the DSIR
have largely been lost; foresight and chance have resulted
in a few of the cultivars remaining in existence in New
Zealand, albeit tenuously. The only hope for a more secure
future for these treasures is if they are propagated and
This remains a rare tree in New Zealand,
probably because the fruit is 'odd'. It is not crisp, it is
not juicy,. It is kind of moist-powdery, but, apart
from the best cultivars, not very sweet if not mature. Worst
of all, it is hard to know when it is ripe. Its main use in
South America is as a flavoring, in the form of a dried
powder as it has a very intense butterscotch flavor. An
industrial process has to be supported by large scale
plantings for it to be viable, and land that could be used
for lucuma in New Zealand has more potential for other, more
profitable, fresh fruit crops. It's future in New Zealand is
According to reference 2 (below) the trees are adapted
to the climate of the Andean low mountain ranges, which
experience temperatures of 8oC to 27oC. The optimum range is
14oC to 24oC, which fits well with the north Auckland
climate - certainly, the trees seem well adapted to
conditions here. Air frosts are extremely rare here, but the
Peruvian information is that it "does not tolerate heavy
frosts, and can die with temperatures below 5oC". I suspect
this should be translated as death can occur if temperatures
drop to minus 5oC, as night time air temperatures would get
below this level from time to time in winter. This is borne
out by the experiences of a Majorcan grower, who rates them
about as frost tolerant as citrus. Interestingly, the
Majorcan experience is that they can tolerate 40oC heat, as
long as they are adequately supplied with water. 
Peruvian information says the tree will grow across a
wide range of soil types, including somewhat calcareous or
even slightly saline soils, so long as the soil is fairly
well drained. Most of the seedlings here have grown well in
an area of tight sandy-clay. This is a very damp soil in
places, and several trees have succumbed (or are slow-motion
succumbing) to Phytopthora. The others are healthy.
This is a handsome tree, small to moderately tall, with slightly
leathery leaves. Left to itself, it sometimes grows as a central
leader tree, but more usually it has multiple leaders. While in
the Andes it flowers and fruit year round, here in Auckland the
trees seem to flower in mid winter to spring (in 2014, an
exceptionally dry year, the trees all flowered very heavily in
autumn, from march to late april). The flowers are white, and
narrowly tubular. The female style projects from the bud prior
to the flower opening, possibly as a means of ensuring cross
pollination. The male anthers are arranged around the 'mouth' of
the flower 'tube'. Presumably they can then pollinate the female
part, if it hasn't already been done.
The literature says lucuma trees are self fertile, and "appear
to be insect pollinated".  It takes about 8 or 9 months to go
from flower to mature fruit .
Multiple leader tree
trees develop fissured bark with age
The trees start new terminal growth flushes about mid
december here, although timing varies quite a bit between
trees. Fruiting is, broadly speaking, winter
In Peru, over 100 improved lineages have been identified, either
with heavier fruit production, or improved fruit quality.
Selections have bean made by the University of Chile, and by La
Molina University. It seems a very variable species, and ripe
for selection (as in Peru), or deliberate breeding.
All but one of our trees are grown from seed from Ecuador, and
are of the dry fleshed type.
The only cultivar I have seen for sale in New Zealand is 'La
Molina', which was at one time available from a nursery in
Kerikeri, Northland. It is a Peruvian cultivar, said to be of
the soft flesh type, with orange flesh.
The Peruvian cultivar 'Montalban', a seda (silk) type is growing
in a backyard collection in Auckland, a lucky survivor of
the DSIR imports of the 1980's. Montalban is a soft flesh type,
although it has only recently been released from competition
with adjacent trees, it is clearly a very productive tree under
Auckland conditions. Its fruit are both larger and
sweeter than the other warm temperate cultivars still (just)
in existence in New Zealand.
appears to ripen most of its crop over about a two month period
in winter. Some Montalban fruit have a tendency to develop
cracks in the skin as they mature [Bernard King,
pers. comm 2014]
Three cultivars, 'San Antonio',
'Merced', and 'Vergata'.are growing at LandsEndt.
These are all Chilean cultivars [Dick Endt, pers. comm
La Molina, San Antonio, and Merced are inferior to Montalban
other. While the very large and sweet heat-requiring cultivar
(name lost) exists in Bernard Kings' collection, it seems
unlikely to set fruit unless provided with additional heat. [Bernard
King, pers. comm 2014]
No cultivars are currently available for sale in New Zealand.
There seems to be quite a
bit of variability amongst lucuma fruit from different regions.
The main use of the fruit historically has been for fresh
eating, and as the seeds grow readily, it is fair to suppose
that the better fresh eating types were accidentally spread
around and their 'superior' genes concentrated locally over
time, possibly displacing other forms. Possibly this was the
case in Chile, in particular.
The fruit is generally large, "up to 1 kg" according to
Fruitipdia. The tree with the biggest fruit here has some large
fruit that weigh around 580 grams. Other trees have smaller
fruit, around 350 grams. The Chilean seedling tree I have here
has smaller fruit still, at around 150 - 160 grams. The fruit on
the Chilean tree are conic, with a pointed end, whereas all the
Ecuadorean seedlings are more or less round, but with a
flattened base. The smaller fruit have 1 or 2 seeds, the larger
fruit have more, up to 4. The seeds are large, with a shiny dark
brown seed coat. Even so, pulp makes up 64% to 82% of the fruit
. Large fruit size doesn't necessarily indicate more seeds.
Some 500gram fruit only have 2 seeds, for example. The thin skin
is green, although some trees have fruit with yellow tan skin
Ecuadorian large dry fruit, and Chilean small sweeter
fruit. These from seedlings, so are not the best
representative of the type.
The flesh of the Ecuadorian seedlings is sort of 'dry' and
crumbly (the texture of the yolk of a boiled egg, perhaps),
slightly sweet, tasting somewhat of butterscotch (some say maple
syrup), but the odd 'powdery' mouth feel and the lack of juice
makes it a fruit you don't really want to eat. The pulp texture
of some of the fruit here can be fairly described as almost
'dust dry' in mouth feel. These mealy, boil-egg-yolk textured,
dry ones are called 'hard' or ('palo' in Spanish) types. They
are sometimes classified as 'Biotype II'  They are not as
sweet (around 18 Brix). The flesh color varies. In some
seedlings it is a pallid creamy-yellow, in others it is a more
pronounced yellow. Fully sized but immature fruit have whitish
flesh.These drier fruit are preferred for processing into lucuma
flour - presumably because they are already part way there! The
'ideal' lucuma fruit for flour would have bright orange, or at
least deep yellow pulp; good levels of soluble solids; an
intense aroma, and a good pulp/flour yield per fruit (a single
seed would be ideal). These large Ecuadorean 'palo' fruit go
some way to this ideal, but lack the required flesh color
intensity and lack much in the way of sugars. The aroma is
variable, but not marked.
In South America, there
are selections with a softer flesh, and these types are known
variously as as 'silk' ('seda' in Spanish) or 'smooth'
types ,. These are sometimes known as 'Biotype I' 
The 'silk' type tree is the predominant form in Chile. These
types have been described as "sweet and creamy" . The brix
(sugar/soluble solids) levels in the silk types are very high -
around 28 Brix. Skin color is green toning lighter to yellowish,
and in others it verges on orange. Most of the seedling
selections ('biotypes') for fresh market are smaller fruit, and
have a very
strong butterscotch or maple syrup flavor.
There is little or no astringency in the flesh near full
maturity The flavor is marked and intense, even in fruit
that are not fully mature. This flavor is the reason so
many people rave about the lucuma. The solitary Chilean tree I
have here fits this description. This fruit is the ideal fresh
market fruit. The ideal fruit is described as having either
yellow or orange flesh of a smooth consistency, high sugar
levels, moderately intense aroma, and a high pulp yield.. The
best Chilean 'biotypes' have only 1 seed. The seedling I have
here has 3 seed, and the fruit wall is rather thin (see the
the fruit. Indeed, when several trees are maturing fruit at the
same time, they will selectively focus on their 'favorite'.
It has been noted in the literature that dogs eat the fruit, and
this has been borne out in New Zealand, where all fruit within
reach have been picked and eaten by the family pet!
Sheep also eat them, and seem to also enjoy eating the seeds.
Sheep eat both the seeds and pulp of lucuma
Curiously, the seed contains about 2.5% of an oil comprising a
mix of fatty acids that have been found to promote healing and
reduce inflammation in wounds and other damage to the skin. The
fatty acids comprise roughly 39% linoleic (C18:2), 28%
oleic (C18:l), 19% palmitic (C16:0), 9% stearic (C18:0), 3%
γ-linolenic acid (C18:3, gamma linolenic acid, GLA) and 0.61
arachidic acid C20:0. There are small, or extremely small,
amounts of myristic,
pentadecanoic, palmitoleic, decanoic,
heptadecanoic, lauric, behenic,
eicosadienoic, erucic, heneicosanoic,
docosadienoic, lignoceric, octanoic,
and eicosapentoic fatty acids.There are also very
small amounts of five other unidentified fatty acids
The wound healing characteristics of lucuma oil is not
dissimilar from the wound and skin healing properties of avocado
oil. Avocado oil contains about 47.20% oleic acid, 23.% palmitic
acid, 13.% linoleic acid, 9% cis-13, 16-docosadienoic acid
(C22 : 2), 3.58% palmitoleic acid (C16 : 1), 1.50% linolenic
acid (C18 : 3n3), 1.3%) cis-11-eicosenoic acid (C20 : 1), and
0.33% myristic acid (C14 : 0). Linoleic (high levels in
lucuma seed oil) and oleic acid (high levels in avocado and
olive oil) modulate skin inflammation and thereby assist
Avocado contain around 20% oil in the flesh,
and it is a lot easier to extract.
The big challenge is to know when the fruit are ripe. They are
certainly ripe when they fall from the tree and split. Of
course, at that point they are subject to possum, rat, dog, and
sheep damage. It would be better to pick them at 'just the right
stage' so that they will ripen properly off the tree. Much like
an avocado fruit.
Fruit maturity and ripening
The fruit are usually well-sized on the tress by mid april.
June-july-august is lucuma fruit season here. Some years fruit
starts to fall in june, some years it is late june and july and
into august and early September. Individual trees differ from
each other in ripening date. Some start in june, some don't
mature fruit until spring. And it can vary by year, as well. In
one year, a tree didn't start to color slightly on the tree and
then fall until november. To make life even more difficult, many
trees have a relatively long flowering and fruit set period.
This means that there are fruit on the tree at different stages
of maturity, and the fruit ripens and falls sporadically over
time. In 2013 most trees had the better part of the crop on the
tree at late august. In 2014 the fruit of the Ecuadorean trees
ripened over the winter months of june july august. The Chilean
seedling ripened its fruit from july onward. These trees are a
bit of a puzzle.
Fruit that fall naturally are generally ripe, or near ripe. This
is similar to avocado fruit, which also detach from the stalk
and fall from the tree to the ground when dead ripe. Some fruit
split when ripe, some don't. If you pick the fruit from the
tree, it may 'bleed' a little sticky white latex from where it
was attached to the stem. In South America, apart from time of
year, maturity is judged by skin color turning slightly
yellowish (although not all fruit show this change), a slight
softening when the fruit is pressed hard with the fingers, and
the ease with which the fruit will detach from the stem . It
is recognized in South America that fruit that are picked too
early will wrinkle, be "astringent", and simply fail to soften.
The problem of finding trees that ripen their fruit crop evenly
is one that still exercises South American researchers minds.
Some fruit - notably Chilean 'seda' types - have much less
or no astringency when they are close to maturity but still
firm. You can bite into the firm fruit with impunity, and eat it
like an apple. These types have no bitterness in the skin, so
the skin can be eaten as well - although it is a bit thick and
Ecuadorian 'palo' fruit
picked too early simply don't soften, but ultimately become
discoloured and 'off'. Picked closer
to the correct time
(but still a bit too early) and the skin will change from green
to a light lemon yellow. At this stage the flesh will soften,
but it will not become mealy in texture. The flesh color will
remain creamy white, and the flesh strongly astringent and
without sweetness. Eventually the skin and flesh discolor to a
murky brown (see photo).
Picked at the correct stage of maturity, they will ripen at room
temperature after 5 to 9 days. We put them in a plastic bag to
concentrate any fruit-ripening ethylene gas they may be
producing. They tend to 'sweat' quite a bit, but don't rot. The
literature says that post harvest ripening is assisted by
enclosing the fruit in paper bags..Chilean seda fruit turn a
slight khaki green and develop a strong aroma when they are
ripe. [Annemarie Endt, pers. comm 2013].
Fruit will keep for 2 - 3 weeks at 15 to 18oC, but temperatures
below this range affect quality, albeit ripening fruit can be
kept for 2 - 3 days at refrigeration temperatures without
significant effect .
We put them in the 'too hard' category, and leave them for the
sheep. The sheep eat them no matter how unripe they are. Seems a
shame, as they are fairly productive - unless affected by Phytopthora
The short YouTube clips below traverse the common commercial
uses - frozen pulp is used in yoghurts, ice-cream. and
smoothies. The pulp is dried and milled into a flour, which has
myriad uses - baked goods, food flavoring, that sort of thing.
Chile has also traditionally made a lucuma paste, which has a
rather date-like flavor. This is not frozen, and is sold in
sealed plastic bags. It is used as a filling in puddings and the
like. [Annemarie Endt, pers. comm 2013].
In the home situation, the flesh can be scooped out of the ripe
fruit and used immediately in smoothies and the like. The flesh
can also be cut into small pieces and frozen in shallow plastic
containers for later use. It retains its form, and is easy to
cut sections off, not forming an "unmanageable mass" [Annemarie
Endt, pers. comm 2013].
Commercially, the 'Palo' fruit can be dried at anything from
50oC to 70oC in forced air driers in slices anything from 2mm to
4mm thick. The 'Seda' fruit retain their flesh color best when
dried at 50oC and when sliced into no more than 2mm thick
pieces. While both biotypes have a yellow caretonoid, the 'seda'
biotype has either a more intense red caretenoid, or greater
concentrations of it; in any case, it results in the orange
color of the flesh.
According to 'The Lucuma' (and Google translate!), lucuma fruit
have a relatively high protein content of 1.5% to 2.4% by
weight. The flesh contains 25 grams of carbohydrate per 100
grams. The sugar component of the carbohydrates are 8.4 grams of
glucose, 4.7 grams of fructose, 1.7 grams of sucrose, and 0.06
grams of inositol. Prior to maturity, there is only sucrose
present, and this is gradually converted to other sugars in the
process of ripening.
On a per 100 gram fresh pulp basis, lucuma fruit have about
2.3mg of carotene, about 2mg of niacin, 0.14 grams riboflavin
(B2), and 0.01 grams thiamine (B1). Lucuma fruit have over three
times the amount of niacin than apples (for example) have, but
significantly less of the other B vitamins than apple.
Lucuma fruit contain trivial amounts of vitamin C, about 2.2
milligrams. (A mango, for comparison has around 63 to 158 mg per
100 grams of pulp, depending on variety.)
Like banana, lucuma has relatively high values for dietary
fibre, mainly insoluble dieatary fibre .
Seedling trees are available from time to time from garden
centres and from specialist nurseries such as Edible Gardens
in Kumeu, Auckland. My Ecuadorian seedlings, introduced in
1982, did not commence fruiting until 1994, a period of 12
years. However, these are Ecuadorian seed, are unselected,
and the trees are growing in unfavorable conditions. Others
who have grown the plant from seed outside its native
environment also report a 12 to 15 year period before the
first flowering, then two years to the first fruit set.
seeds germinate in about a week or so, and the shoot generally
appears about 2 weeks later. It can take as long as 3 months for
a shoot to emerge. The more mature the seed, the faster the
germination (all else equal). The seed loses viability if it
dries out, so should be sown as near fresh as possible. Some
claim germination is faster if the shiny hard seed coat is
Experience in New Zealand from Government cultivar
introductions in the 1980's is that grafted plants will
commence flowering in around 4-5 years from planting out
in fertile, well drained soils. The
grafted plants at LandsEndt commenced fruiting 5 years after
planting out, and the literature says that some grafted
plants start fruiting in the 5th year, but reliable fruiting
only starts after the 6th year. .This is still better than
seedlings. There are no recognized rootstocks, so any
seedling lucuma is used.
If you have
access to scionwood of good types, you can try grafting it to
seedlings. Seedlings should be about pencil thickness, which
might take around 8 months or so from planting seeds.
I tried some simple terminal 'wedge' grafts in summer (late
december), and of the 5 attempts, 1 succeeded. The graft union
is not very good, but the tree is 8 months old now (2013), and
Scionwood bleeds a sticky white latex when it is cut from the
tree. I washed it off best I could before grafting. Whether this
is the 'right' thing to do or not, I don't know. There are some
hints that at a certain time of year the sap doesn't flow as
strongly, and this is the best time to graft. Sadly, there is no
mention of when
that time would be! Grafting in winter
(July), when wood is is mature has been successful provided it
is done in greenhouse conditions [B. King pers.
If the winter is warm (as 2014 is) seedling lucuma growing
outside in planter bags may start new terminal growth in mid
july. This might fit nicely with mid winter grafting, especially
if newly grafted plants can be given some protection, even is
not full glasshouse conditions.
There is a method
(Gardiazabal and Valenzuela 1984) of grafting "cuttings" onto
the long emerging root of germinating lucuma seeds, but
details are scant. The principle is to germinate the seeds, cut
off the thick white root, split it, and place a wedge of a tip
of the chosen variety into the slit made in the root.
The seed is then re-potted 'upside down' so the root with the
branch tip is sticking up in the air. Any little laterals coming
off the base of the thick main root are buried, as are other
subsidiary roots, although these may need to be taped so they
change direction to point to the 'new down'.
I grafted the seeds on the left about September, and left them
enclosed in a plastic bag in damp vermiculite. Every terminal
scion succumbed to fungal infection, but almost every single one
had made a strong union with the root within 2 weeks. The
technique seems promising, so long as fungi are controlled in
the humid conditions.
The literature also refers to
propagation by both cuttings and by marcottage. Cutting
grown trees of 'Molina' were very briefly available from
a specialist nursery, but I have never seen them on
offer again. Pity. My little tree of 'Molina' was
crushed within its chicken wire protective sleeve by a
"Up to" 80% rooting of terminal leafy cuttings has been
obtained under mist when the cuttings were treated with
NAA plant rooting hormone at the rate of 4,000 to 8,000
ppm . Another report from this researcher in 1992
described taking terminal leafy cuttings from actively
growing branches, treating them with 4,000 ppm of NAA,
and placing them in a mix of equal parts of sand, peat,
and styrofoam chips in wooden trays. The cuttings did
not have mist, but were fully enclosed in a polythene
'tent' and put in 50% shade. Rooting started after 50
days, and the ultimate 'strike rate' was around 80%.
Grafted trees can be planted out once they have made 10
cms growth and have at least 6 leaves. They are planted
out at roughly 5 meter by 5 meter spacings.Trees
are usually trained to a vase shape. The
form of the tree is shaped by pruning the young tree at
1 meter high to promote lateral branches. .Three or four
branches arising at different heights on the trunk are
chosen to form the base of the vase. In the second year
the primary scaffold branches are pruned back to 40 to
50 cms to balance the tree. Inward growing branches are
removed to open the tree out, and any suckers sprouting
from the base of the tree are removed.
Production from grafted plants hits its maximum at about
10 years, when up to 300 fruit per tree may be
- Cultivar orchard
- Puruvian organic orchard (english language)
- Quick overview of the whole lucuma scene, from trees,
plantations, variabilitiy in fruit, to uses in
smoothies, pastry, ice cream, yoghurt. Spanish language.
- lucuma fruit growing in upland Andes for powder
production - good images of the fruit interior. English.
- pruning a commercial lucuma orchard (Peru). Spanish.
1. 'Pouteria lucuma'. Wikipedia. Accessed 11/07/2013
2. Unknown title: Chapter 1: The Lucuma. Date unknown.
3. Lucuma. Fruitipedia. Accessed 11/07/2013
and use of Pouteria
extract. Patent applicationby Rutgers State University,
5. Janick, J., Paull, R.E. 2008. The Encyclopedia of Fruit &
Cabi Publishing, Wallingford, UK
7. 'Perfil de Mercado y Competitividad Exportadora de la Lúcuma'
8. Endt, D, 'Lucuma - a little known fruit from the Andes'.1985
Southern Horticulture, August 1985, pp23-24.
9. 'Field Trials near for sub-tropical lucuma'. 1986.
Reprint from Bay of Plenty Times in the june 1986 'Commercial
10. Odilo Duarte, B. and Rafael Franciosi, T. 1976. 'Recent
advances in the propagation of some tropical and subtropical
fruit species in Peru'
Acta Hort. (ISHS) 57:15-20
11. Glorio, P., Repo-Carrasco, R., Velezmoro C. 2008. Fibra
dietaria en variedades peruanas de frutas, tubérculos, cereales
Rev. Soc. Quím. Perú v.74 n.1 Lima ene./mar. 2008
12. Inga, M, Velezmoro, C. 2004. 'Optimization of the
dehydration process for twi biotypes of lucuma (Pouteria
(R & P) Kuntze) using the response surface
methodology.' - Accessed 4 September 2013
Drying 2004 – Proceedings of the 14th International Drying
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