A fruit of the Andes, in Chile the fruit is called lucuma, and
the tree is called lucumo. In Ecuador, the tree is called lugma. The
native habitat of this tree is the high Andean valleys of Peru, Chile,
and Ecuador. It has been used for at least 2,000 years, pre-dating even
the use by the Incas. Historically,
the trees have provided food in times of shortage of other crops, so
can be seen as' insurance' against crop failure. It has
only ever been used to any extent in South America, but there is
increasing interest in the fruit as a natural ingredient. Villages in
Ecuador and Peru have traditionally had one or more trees by houses or
in the vicinity of the settlement, but it is not common in the
marketplace. Traditional use has been as chicken feed or as baby
food.. This may reflect the characteristics of the local type, which
is much less acceptable for fresh eating than Chilean types. Chilean
fruit is sweeter, and has a more intense flavor, and as a result the
fruit is more popular and more widely grown. The availability of
industrially processed pulp and powder has seen its use expand to ice
cream (the predominant use), yoghurt, milk shakes, cakes, biscuits,
baby food, liqueurs, and so on. It seems quite versatile as a food
Peru is the main producer for the dried pulp market, with 600 hectares
in lucuma orchards as at 1999, and more plantings projected. Much
is consumed domestically (400 metric tonnes
were sold in Peru alone in 2012). However,
montane 'informal' plantings are not counted, so production as at 2002
was estimated at vastly more 16,000 tonnes of fresh fruit in Peru alone
(given 8 tonnes per hectare) .
In 2012, 250 metric tonnes of the pulp was exported from Peru, most of
it to Chile, but such is the interest that export tonnage is expected
to jump to around 500 tonnes in 2013. There are now around 200 hectares
of lucuma orchard in Peru producing exclusively for the lucuma export
market. The flour is also in big demand internationally, but it takes
more fruit to make a kilo of flour than it does of pulp, and production
is relatively limited. About 20 metric tonnes of flour was exported
from Peru in 2012. A small amount of fresh fruit are exported, almost
all of it to France.
Various other countries are investigating lucuma as a crop, including
New Zealand, according to the Peruvian reference below . In the case
of New Zealand this is no longer true, as Hort+Research (the former
Department of Scientific and Industrial Research) abandoned minor crops
many years ago, and most of the carefully selected germplasm has
History in New Zealand
Stuart Dawes, subtropical pomologist at the DSIR introduced seed from
carefully selected trees in Ecuador, Chile and Peru in 1973. I believe
that most, if not all, seedlings were fruiting by 1984, at least. Seed
was also introduced by Dick Endt subsequent to him seeing trees growing
in Ecuador in 1977. This seed came from both Ecuador and Chile. The
seedlings at the LandsEndt orchard were planted as a hedgerow for later
selection of better types. They started fruiting in the early 1980's
. The seedlings are now (2013) fruiting well. although, as expected
in a hedgerow situation, they are now rather tall. Scionwood from 3
Chilean cultivars ('Vergata', 'Merced' and
'San Patricio') were successfully established by the Endts.
it is not anticipated that further work will be done on any of these
trees. [Dick Endt, pers. comm 2013]
Stuart Dawes also introduced scionwood of named varieties and improved
selections in 1980, as part of a co-operative plant exchange with South
American countries. These cultivars were bulked up at Tharfield
Nurseries in Tauranga for planting out in field trials. In total, 300
grafted trees were planted out . .The fruiting selected seedlings
and cultivars growing at the Pukekohe Research Station were ultimately
bulldozed. Presumably if plants were established at the Te Puke and
Kerikeri Research Stations they, too, would have been bulldozed. Some
plants might have been distributed to co-operating orchardists for
mini-trials under the 'new crops' scheme of the government of the day,
but if they were, they have dropped out of sight (although there may
possibly be a planting still in existence in Northland, but whether of
seedlings or named cultivars is uncertain
[B. King pers. comm 2014]).
Stuart Dawes sent grafted plants of the best
cultivars to the Austen Brothers Exotica nursery in Kaitaia in the
1980s. The most important cultivar was considered to be a very large
fruited type which but needed a warmer climate to fruit. (Some
scionwood of this cultivar (whose name is now lost) was given to
Auckland plant enthusiast Bernard King, and two grafted plants from
this accession are still extant. Ironically, the plant at the Austen
Brothers Nursery subsequently died. A plant is currently being
propagated in Auckland to replace it.) [B.
King pers. comm 2014]
When the DSIR abandoned minor subtropical
crops, the contracting nursery (Tharfield Nurseries) on-sold either
part of, or all the lucuma cultivar grafted plants (70 plants) to
Lyndale Nurseries. The plants were not a
priority for the nursery, and ultimately it was arranged for the trees
to be planted at Shelly Beach Farms, north of Helensville.
Unfortunately, feral deer jumped the fence around the planting and ate
the trees to the ground. Fortunately,
George Sinnock, a member of the New Zealand Tree Crops Association in
Auckland, rescued scionwood of two Peruvian
cultivars, 'Montalban' and 'La Molina' when the Pukekohe trees
King pers. comm 2014
The few remaining named cultivars are currently
unobtainable, although some plants of one cultivar may be available in
future [B. King pers. comm 2014].
There is a cryptic note in a 1997 compilation listing some of the known
plant imports of New Zealand Tree Crops Association listing "11
selections from various places by Gardner". Phil and Georgie Gardner
imported many plants through their quarantine facility in the Bay of
Islands, but it is unknown whether these 11 selections were cultivars
imported from overseas, or propagation of DSIR cultivars imported in
It is a matter of great regret that the carefully selected cultivars
and seed acquired at great expense by the DSIR have largely been lost;
foresight and chance have resulted in a few of the cultivars remaining
in existence in New Zealand, albeit tenuously. The only hope for a more
secure future for these treasures is if they are propagated and sold.
This remains a rare tree in New Zealand, probably
because the fruit is 'odd'. It is not crisp, it is not juicy,. It is
kind of moist-powdery, but, apart from the best cultivars, not very
sweet if not mature. Worst of all, it is hard to know when it is ripe.
Its main use in South America is as a flavoring, in the form of a dried
powder as it has a very intense butterscotch flavor. An industrial
process has to be supported by large scale plantings for it to be
viable, and land that could be used for lucuma in New Zealand has more
potential for other, more profitable, fresh fruit crops. It's future in
New Zealand is not bright.
According to reference 2 (below) the trees are adapted to the
climate of the Andean low mountain ranges, which experience
temperatures of 8oC to 27oC. The optimum range is 14oC to 24oC, which
fits well with the north Auckland climate - certainly, the trees
seem well adapted to conditions here. Air frosts are extremely rare
here, but the Peruvian information is that it "does not tolerate heavy
frosts, and can die with temperatures below 5oC". I suspect this should
be translated as death can occur if temperatures drop to minus 5oC, as
night time air temperatures would get below this level from time to
time in winter. This is borne out by the experiences of a Majorcan
grower, who rates them about as frost tolerant as citrus.
Interestingly, the Majorcan experience is that they can tolerate 40oC
heat, as long as they are adequately supplied with water. 
Peruvian information says the tree will grow across a wide range
of soil types, including somewhat calcareous or even slightly saline
soils, so long as the soil is fairly well drained. Most of the
seedlings here have grown well in an area of tight sandy-clay. This is
a very damp soil in places, and several trees have succumbed (or are
slow-motion succumbing) to Phytopthora. The others are healthy.
This is a handsome tree, small to moderately tall, with slightly
leathery leaves. Left to itself, it sometimes grows as a central leader
tree, but more usually it has multiple leaders. While in the Andes it
flowers and fruit year round, here in Auckland the trees seem to flower
in mid winter to spring (in 2014, an exceptionally dry year, the trees
all flowered very heavily in autumn, from march to late april). The
flowers are white, and narrowly tubular. The female style projects from
the bud prior to the flower opening, possibly as a means of ensuring
cross pollination. The male anthers are arranged around the 'mouth' of
the flower 'tube'. Presumably they can then pollinate the female part,
if it hasn't already been done.
The literature says lucuma trees are self fertile, and "appear to be
insect pollinated".  It takes about 8 or 9 months to go from flower
to mature fruit .
Multiple leader tree
trees develop fissured bark with age
The trees start new terminal growth flushes about mid december here,
although timing varies quite a bit between trees. Fruiting is, broadly
In Peru, over 100 improved lineages have been identified, either with
heavier fruit production, or improved fruit quality. Selections have
bean made by the University of Chile, and by La Molina University. It
seems a very variable species, and ripe for selection (as in Peru), or
All but one of our trees are grown from seed from Ecuador, and are of
the dry fleshed type.
The only cultivar I have seen for sale in New Zealand is 'La Molina',
which was at one time available from a nursery in Kerikeri, Northland.
It is a Peruvian cultivar, said to be of the soft flesh type, with
The Peruvian cultivar 'Montalban', a seda (silk) type is growing in a
backyard collection in Auckland, a lucky survivor of the DSIR
imports of the 1980's. Montalban is a soft flesh type, although it has
only recently been released from competition with adjacent trees, it is
clearly a very productive tree under Auckland conditions. Its
fruit are both larger and sweeter than the other warm temperate
cultivars still (just) in existence in New Zealand.
appears to ripen most of its crop over about a two month period in
winter. Some Montalban fruit have a tendency to develop cracks in the
skin as they mature [Bernard King, pers. comm 2014]
Three cultivars, 'San Antonio', 'Merced', and
'Vergata'.are growing at LandsEndt. These are all Chilean
cultivars [Dick Endt, pers. comm 2013].
La Molina, San Antonio, and Merced are inferior to Montalban
alongside each other. While
the very large and sweet heat-requiring cultivar (name lost) exists in
Bernard Kings' collection, it seems unlikely to set fruit unless
provided with additional heat. [Bernard King, pers. comm
No cultivars are currently available for sale in New Zealand.
Ecuadorian large dry fruit, and Chilean small sweeter fruit.
These from seedlings, so are not the best representative of the type.
There seems to be quite a bit of
variability amongst lucuma fruit from different regions. The main use
of the fruit historically has been for fresh eating, and as the seeds
grow readily, it is fair to suppose that the better fresh eating types
were accidentally spread around and their 'superior' genes concentrated
locally over time, possibly displacing other forms. Possibly this was
the case in Chile, in particular.
The fruit is generally large, "up to 1 kg" according to Fruitipdia. The
tree with the biggest fruit here has some large fruit that weigh around
580 grams. Other trees have smaller fruit, around 350 grams. The
Chilean seedling tree I have here has smaller fruit still, at around
150 - 160 grams. The fruit on the Chilean tree are conic, with a
pointed end, whereas all the Ecuadorean seedlings are more or less
round, but with a flattened base. The smaller fruit have 1 or 2 seeds,
the larger fruit have more, up to 4. The seeds are large, with a shiny
dark brown seed coat. Even so, pulp makes up 64% to 82% of the fruit
. Large fruit size doesn't necessarily indicate more seeds. Some
500gram fruit only have 2 seeds, for example. The thin skin is green,
although some trees have fruit with yellow tan skin .
The flesh of the Ecuadorian seedlings is sort of 'dry' and crumbly (the
texture of the yolk of a boiled egg, perhaps), slightly sweet, tasting
somewhat of butterscotch (some say maple syrup), but the odd 'powdery'
mouth feel and the lack of juice makes it a fruit you don't really want
to eat. The pulp texture of some of the fruit here can be fairly
described as almost 'dust dry' in mouth feel. These mealy,
boil-egg-yolk textured, dry ones are called 'hard' or ('palo' in
Spanish) types. They are sometimes classified as 'Biotype II'  They
are not as sweet (around 18 Brix). The flesh color varies. In some
seedlings it is a pallid creamy-yellow, in others it is a more
pronounced yellow. Fully sized but immature fruit have whitish
flesh.These drier fruit are preferred for processing into lucuma flour
- presumably because they are already part way there! The 'ideal'
lucuma fruit for flour would have bright orange, or at least deep
yellow pulp; good levels of soluble solids; an intense aroma, and a
good pulp/flour yield per fruit (a single seed would be ideal). These
large Ecuadorean 'palo' fruit go some way to this ideal, but lack the
required flesh color intensity and lack much in the way of sugars. The
aroma is variable, but not marked.
In South America, there are selections with a
softer flesh, and these types are known variously as as 'silk'
('seda' in Spanish) or 'smooth' types ,. These are sometimes
known as 'Biotype I'  The 'silk' type tree is the predominant
form in Chile. These types have been described as "sweet and creamy"
. The brix (sugar/soluble solids) levels in the silk types are very
high - around 28 Brix. Skin color is green toning lighter to yellowish,
and in others it verges on orange. Most of the seedling selections
('biotypes') for fresh market are smaller fruit, and have a very
butterscotch or maple syrup flavor. There is little or no astringency
in the flesh near full maturity The flavor is marked and intense,
even in fruit that are not fully mature. This flavor is the
reason so many people rave about the lucuma. The solitary Chilean tree
I have here fits this description. This fruit is the ideal fresh market
fruit. The ideal fruit is described as having either yellow or orange
flesh of a smooth consistency, high sugar levels, moderately intense
aroma, and a high pulp yield.. The best Chilean 'biotypes' have only
1 seed. The Chilean seedling I have here has 3 seed, and the fruit wall is
rather thin (see the photo above).
Possums love the fruit. Indeed, when several
trees are maturing fruit at the same time, they will selectively focus
on their 'favorite'.
It has been noted in the literature that dogs eat the fruit, and this
has been borne out in New Zealand, where all fruit within reach have
been picked and eaten by the family pet!
Sheep also eat them, and seem to also enjoy eating the seeds.
Sheep eat both the seeds and pulp of lucuma
Curiously, the seed contains about 2.5% of an oil comprising a mix of
fatty acids that have been found to promote healing and reduce
inflammation in wounds and other damage to the skin. The fatty acids
comprise roughly 39% linoleic (C18:2), 28% oleic (C18:l), 19%
palmitic (C16:0), 9% stearic (C18:0), 3% γ-linolenic acid (C18:3, gamma
linolenic acid, GLA) and 0.61 arachidic acid C20:0. There
are small, or extremely small, amounts of myristic,
pentadecanoic, palmitoleic, decanoic, heptadecanoic,
lauric, behenic, eicosadienoic,
erucic, heneicosanoic, docosadienoic,
lignoceric, octanoic, and
eicosapentoic fatty acids.There are also very small amounts of five
other unidentified fatty acids
The wound healing characteristics of lucuma oil is not dissimilar from
the wound and skin healing properties of avocado oil. Avocado oil
contains about 47.20% oleic acid, 23.% palmitic acid, 13.% linoleic
acid, 9% cis-13, 16-docosadienoic acid (C22 : 2), 3.58% palmitoleic
acid (C16 : 1), 1.50% linolenic acid (C18 : 3n3), 1.3%)
cis-11-eicosenoic acid (C20 : 1), and 0.33% myristic acid (C14 : 0). Linoleic
(high levels in lucuma seed oil) and oleic acid (high levels in avocado
and olive oil) modulate skin inflammation and thereby assist healing.
contain around 20% oil in the flesh, and it is a lot easier to extract.
The big challenge is to know when the fruit are ripe. They are
certainly ripe when they fall from the tree and split. Of course, at
that point they are subject to possum, rat, dog, and sheep damage. It
would be better to pick them at 'just the right stage' so that they
will ripen properly off the tree. Much like an avocado fruit.
Fruit maturity and ripening
The fruit are usually well-sized on the tress by mid april.
June-july-august is lucuma fruit season here. Some years fruit starts
to fall in june, some years it is late june and july and into august
and early September. Individual trees differ from each other in
ripening date. Some start in june, some don't mature fruit until
spring. And it can vary by year, as well. In one year, a tree didn't
start to color slightly on the tree and then fall until november. To
make life even more difficult, many trees have a relatively long
flowering and fruit set period. This means that there are fruit on the
tree at different stages of maturity, and the fruit ripens and falls
sporadically over time. In 2013 most trees had the better part of the
crop on the tree at late august. In 2014 the fruit of the Ecuadorean
trees ripened over the winter months of june july august. The Chilean
seedling ripened its fruit from july onward. These trees are a bit of a
Fruit that fall naturally are generally ripe, or near ripe. This is
similar to avocado fruit, which also detach from the stalk and fall
from the tree to the ground when dead ripe. Some fruit split when ripe,
some don't. If you pick the fruit from the tree, it may 'bleed' a
little sticky white latex from where it was attached to the stem. In
South America, apart from time of year, maturity is judged by skin
color turning slightly yellowish (although not all fruit show this
change), a slight softening when the fruit is pressed hard with the
fingers, and the ease with which the fruit will detach from the stem
. It is recognized in South America that fruit that are picked too
early will wrinkle, be "astringent", and simply fail to soften. The
problem of finding trees that ripen their fruit crop evenly is one that
still exercises South American researchers minds. Some fruit -
notably Chilean 'seda' types - have much less or no astringency
when they are close to maturity but still firm. You can bite into the
firm fruit with impunity, and eat it like an apple. These types have no
bitterness in the skin, so the skin can be eaten as well - although it
is a bit thick and obtrusive.
Ecuadorian 'palo' fruit picked too early simply
don't soften, but ultimately become discoloured and 'off'. Picked
to the correct time (but still a bit too early) and the skin
will change from green to a light lemon yellow. At this stage the flesh
will soften, but it will not become mealy in texture. The flesh color
will remain creamy white, and the flesh strongly astringent and without
sweetness. Eventually the skin and flesh discolor to a murky brown.
The photos on the left illustrate the progression of these deceptively 'apparently mature' fruit.
Picked at the correct stage of maturity, they will ripen at room
temperature after 5 to 9 days. We put them in a plastic bag to
concentrate any fruit-ripening ethylene gas they may be producing. They
tend to 'sweat' quite a bit, but don't rot. The literature says that
post harvest ripening is assisted by enclosing the fruit in paper
bags..Chilean seda fruit turn a slight khaki green and develop a
strong aroma when they are ripe. [Annemarie Endt, pers. comm 2013].
Fruit will keep for 2 - 3 weeks at 15 to 18oC, but temperatures below
this range affect quality, albeit ripening fruit can be kept for 2 - 3
days at refrigeration temperatures without significant effect .
The trees drop their fruit naturally when they are mature - but, again,
this varies with tree and season. The fruit from some trees splits open
Left - naturally fallen and split open ripe 'palo' fruit (October 2018).
We put them in the 'too hard' category, and leave them for the sheep.
The sheep eat them no matter how unripe they are. Seems a shame, as
they are fairly productive - unless affected by Phytopthora
The short YouTube clips below traverse the common commercial uses -
frozen pulp is used in yoghurts, ice-cream. and smoothies. The pulp is
dried and milled into a flour, which has myriad uses - baked goods,
food flavoring, that sort of thing.
Chile has also traditionally made a lucuma paste, which has a rather
date-like flavor. This is not frozen, and is sold in sealed plastic
bags. It is used as a filling in puddings and the like. [Annemarie
Endt, pers. comm 2013].
In the home situation, the flesh can be scooped out of the ripe fruit
and used immediately in smoothies and the like. The flesh can also be
cut into small pieces and frozen in shallow plastic containers for
later use. It retains its form, and is easy to cut sections off, not
forming an "unmanageable mass" [Annemarie Endt, pers. comm 2013].
Commercially, the 'Palo' fruit can be dried at anything from 50oC to
70oC in forced air driers in slices anything from 2mm to 4mm thick. The
'Seda' fruit retain their flesh color best when dried at 50oC and when
sliced into no more than 2mm thick pieces. While both biotypes have a
yellow caretonoid, the 'seda' biotype has either a more intense red
caretenoid, or greater concentrations of it; in any case, it results in
the orange color of the flesh.
According to 'The Lucuma' (and Google translate!), lucuma fruit have a
relatively high protein content of 1.5% to 2.4% by weight. The flesh
contains 25 grams of carbohydrate per 100 grams. The sugar component of
the carbohydrates are 8.4 grams of glucose, 4.7 grams of fructose, 1.7
grams of sucrose, and 0.06 grams of inositol. Prior to maturity, there
is only sucrose present, and this is gradually converted to other
sugars in the process of ripening.
On a per 100 gram fresh pulp basis, lucuma fruit have about 2.3mg of
carotene, about 2mg of niacin, 0.14 grams riboflavin (B2), and 0.01
grams thiamine (B1). Lucuma fruit have over three times the amount of
niacin than apples (for example) have, but significantly less of the
other B vitamins than apple.
Lucuma fruit contain trivial amounts of vitamin C, about 2.2
milligrams. (A mango, for comparison has around 63 to 158 mg per 100
grams of pulp, depending on variety.)
Like banana, lucuma has relatively high values for dietary fibre,
mainly insoluble dieatary fibre .
Seedling trees are available from time to time from garden centres and
from specialist nurseries such as Edible Gardens in Kumeu, Auckland. My
Ecuadorian seedlings, introduced in 1982, did not commence fruiting
until 1994, a period of 12 years. However, these are Ecuadorian seed,
are unselected, and the trees are growing in unfavorable conditions.
Others who have grown the plant from seed outside its native
environment also report a 12 to 15 year period before the first
flowering, then two years to the first fruit set.
seeds germinate in about a week or so, and the shoot generally appears
about 2 weeks later. It can take as long as 3 months for a shoot to
emerge. The more mature the seed, the faster the germination (all else
equal). The seed loses viability if it dries out, so should be sown as
near fresh as possible. Some claim germination is faster if the shiny
hard seed coat is removed.
Experience in New Zealand from Government cultivar introductions in the
1980's is that grafted plants will commence flowering in around 4-5
years from planting out in fertile, well drained soils. The
grafted plants at LandsEndt commenced fruiting 5 years after planting
out, and the literature says that some grafted plants start fruiting in
the 5th year, but reliable fruiting only starts after the 6th year.
.This is still better than seedlings. There are no recognized
rootstocks, so any seedling lucuma is used.
have access to scionwood of good types, you can try grafting it to
seedlings. Seedlings should be about pencil thickness, which might take
around 8 months or so from planting seeds.
I tried some simple terminal 'wedge' grafts in summer (late december),
and of the 5 attempts, 1 succeeded. The graft union is not very good,
but the tree is 8 months old now (2013), and seems OK.
Scionwood bleeds a sticky white latex when it is cut from the tree. I
washed it off best I could before grafting. Whether this is the 'right'
thing to do or not, I don't know. There are some hints that at a
certain time of year the sap doesn't flow as strongly, and this is the
best time to graft. Sadly, there is no mention of when
time would be! Grafting in winter (July), when wood is is mature has
been successful provided it is done in greenhouse conditions [B.
King pers. comm 2014].
If the winter is warm (as 2014 is) seedling lucuma growing outside in
planter bags may start new terminal growth in mid july. This might fit
nicely with mid winter grafting, especially if newly grafted plants can
be given some protection, even is not full glasshouse conditions.
a method (Gardiazabal and Valenzuela 1984) of grafting "cuttings" onto
the long emerging root of germinating lucuma seeds, but details
are scant. The principle is to germinate the seeds, cut off the thick
white root, split it, and place a wedge of a tip of the chosen variety
into the slit made in the root.
The seed is then re-potted 'upside down' so the root with the branch
tip is sticking up in the air. Any little laterals coming off the base
of the thick main root are buried, as are other subsidiary roots,
although these may need to be taped so they change direction to point
to the 'new down'.
I grafted the seeds on the left about September, and left them enclosed
in a plastic bag in damp vermiculite. Every terminal scion succumbed to
fungal infection, but almost every single one had made a strong union
with the root within 2 weeks. The technique seems promising, so long as
fungi are controlled in the humid conditions.
The literature also refers to
propagation by both cuttings and by marcottage. Cutting grown trees of
'Molina' were very briefly available from a specialist nursery, but I
have never seen them on offer again. Pity. My little tree of 'Molina'
was crushed within its chicken wire protective sleeve by a malevolent
"Up to" 80% rooting of terminal leafy cuttings has been obtained under
mist when the cuttings were treated with NAA plant rooting hormone at
the rate of 4,000 to 8,000 ppm . Another report from this
researcher in 1992 described taking terminal leafy cuttings from
actively growing branches, treating them with 4,000 ppm of NAA, and
placing them in a mix of equal parts of sand, peat, and styrofoam chips
in wooden trays. The cuttings did not have mist, but were fully
enclosed in a polythene 'tent' and put in 50% shade. Rooting started
after 50 days, and the ultimate 'strike rate' was around 80%.
Grafted trees can be planted out once they have made 10 cms growth and
have at least 6 leaves. They are planted out at roughly 5 meter by 5
are usually trained to a vase shape. The
form of the tree is shaped by pruning the young tree at 1 meter high to
promote lateral branches. .Three or four branches arising at different
heights on the trunk are chosen to form the base of the vase. In the
second year the primary scaffold branches are pruned back to 40 to 50
cms to balance the tree. Inward growing branches are removed to open
the tree out, and any suckers sprouting from the base of the tree are
Production from grafted plants hits its maximum at about 10 years, when
up to 300 fruit per tree may be produced.
Puruvian organic orchard (english language)
Quick overview of the whole lucuma scene, from trees, plantations,
variabilitiy in fruit, to uses in smoothies, pastry, ice cream,
yoghurt. Spanish language.
lucuma fruit growing in upland Andes for powder production - good
images of the fruit interior. English.
pruning a commercial lucuma orchard (Peru). Spanish.
1. 'Pouteria lucuma'. Wikipedia. Accessed 11/07/2013
2. Unknown title: Chapter 1: The Lucuma. Date unknown.
3. Lucuma. Fruitipedia. Accessed 11/07/2013
4. Preparation and use of Pouteria lucuma extract. Patent
applicationby Rutgers State University, USA.
5. Janick, J., Paull, R.E. 2008. The Encyclopedia of Fruit & Nuts.
Cabi Publishing, Wallingford, UK
7. 'Perfil de Mercado y Competitividad Exportadora de la Lúcuma'
8. Endt, D, 'Lucuma - a little known fruit from the Andes'.1985
Southern Horticulture, August 1985, pp23-24.
9. 'Field Trials near for sub-tropical lucuma'. 1986.
Reprint from Bay of Plenty Times in the june 1986 'Commercial
10. Odilo Duarte, B. and Rafael Franciosi, T. 1976. 'Recent advances in
the propagation of some tropical and subtropical fruit species in Peru'
Acta Hort. (ISHS) 57:15-20
11. Glorio, P., Repo-Carrasco, R., Velezmoro C. 2008. Fibra dietaria en
variedades peruanas de frutas, tubérculos, cereales y leguminosas
Rev. Soc. Quím. Perú v.74 n.1 Lima ene./mar. 2008
12. Inga, M, Velezmoro, C. 2004. 'Optimization of the dehydration
process for twi biotypes of lucuma (Pouteria lúcuma
(R & P)
Kuntze) using the response surface methodology.' - Accessed 4 September
Drying 2004 – Proceedings of the 14th International Drying Symposium
(IDS 2004) São Paulo, Brazil, 22-25 August 2004, vol. C, pp. 1804-1811
13. Lucuma (Pouteria lucuma) - accessed 4th September 2013
14. Long, Owen, et al. History of the NZ Tree Crops Association (Inc).